Biochemical lens or a combination of lenses to produce

Biochemical
analysis techniques is a set of methods, assays, and procedures that authorize
by scientists to analyze the substances found in living organisms and the
chemical reactions underlying life processes.

These techniques are common
for testing of illegal drugs abuse in competitive athletic events and
monitoring of blood sugar by diabetic patients.To perform a comprehensive
biochemical analysis of a biomolecule in a biological process or system, the
biochemist typically needs to design a strategy to detect that biomolecule,
isolate it in pure form from among thousands of molecules that can be found in
an extracts from a biological sample, characterize it, and analyze its
function.

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Here is a list of
biochemical techniques;

1)     
Microscopy

2)     
Centrifugation

3)     
Gas
chromotography

4)     
Flame
photometry

5)     
Electromagnetic
spectrum

6)     
Fluorometry

7)     
Infrared
spectroscopy

8)     
Ultra
violet spectroscopy

9)     
Nuclear
magnetic resonance specroscopy

10) 
Mass
spectroscopy

11) 
Raman
spectroscopy

12) 
x-ray
diffraction

MICROSCOPY;  Microscopy
is a techniques that help to view microorganism clearly whichcant see by naked
eye, using microbes to view objects. Microscope is an optical instrument that uses a
lens or a combination of lenses to produce magnified images of small objects,
especially of objects too small to be seen by the unaided eye. There is a many
branches of microscopy but the one of the compound microscope is commonly used
.

CENTRIFUGATION;Is a
technique which is frequently used for the separation of particles from the
solution according to their size, shape, density, viscosity of the medium and
rotor speed .Different speeds were used for different samples.The particles are
suspended in a liquid medium and placed in a centrifuge tube. The
tube is then placed in a rotor and spun at a define speed.Separation
through sedimentation could be done naturally with the earth gravity,
nevertheless, it would take ages. Centrifugation is making that natural
process much faster. Rotation of the rotor about a central axis creates a centrifugal
force upon the particles in the suspension

GAS
CHROMOTGRAPHY;It is a technique
to tell of the group of analytical separation techniques used to detect or
identify volatile substances in the gas phase. In gas chromatography, the constituent
of a sample are dissolved in a solvent and vaporized in order to separate the
analytes by distributing the sample between two phases: a stationary phase and
a mobile phase.

·        
The mobile
phase is a chemically inert gas that serves to take the molecules of the
analyte through the heated column. Gas chromatography is one of the sole forms
of chromatography that does not utilize the mobile phase for interacting with
the analyte.

·        
The
stationary phase is either a solid adsorbant, termed gas-solid chromatography (GSC),
or a liquid on an inert support, termed gas-liquid chromatography (GLC).

The
electromagnetic (EM) spectrum is the collection of  all types of EM radiation. Radiation is energy
that travels and spreads out as it goes – the visible light which is comes from
you lamp in your house and the radio waves that come from a radio station are
two types of electromagnetic radiation. The other types of EM radiation that
make up the electromagnetic spectrum are microwaves, infrared light, ultraviolet
light, X-rays and gamma-rays.

an analytical technique for identifying, determine
and characterized minute amounts of a substance
by excitation of thesubstance with
a beam of UV light and detection and measurement
of the characteristic wavelength of the fluorescent light emitted.

OR

Measurement of fluorescence emitted
by compounds when exposed to ultraviolet
or other intense radiant energy. The atoms of some substances produce fluorescence of a characteristic
color and wavelength, allowing identification and quantification of several clinically significant compounds in biological
specimens. Although fluorometry is a highly sensitive method
of analysis, test interference by other compounds
,especially drugs, may limit its usefulness in some situations.Spectroscopy
is a technique which deals with the measurement between the matter and
electromagnetic radiations

;  is the analysis of
infrared light interacting with a molecule. This type of spectroscopy can be
analyzed in three ways by measuring absorption, emission and reflection. The
commonly use of this technique is in organic and inorganic chemistry. It is
used by chemists to determine functional groups in molecules.
IR Spectroscopy measures the vibrations of atoms, and based on this it is
possible to determine the functional groups.5 Generally, stronger bonds and
light atoms will vibrate at a high stretching frequency (wavenumber).

 

ULTRAVIOLET
LIGHT; Ultraviolet and visible
(UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy is the measurement of  a beam of light after it passes through a
sample or after reflection from a sample surface. Absorption measurements can
be at a single wavelength or over an extended spectral range.

 

NUCLEAR
MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY(NMR);It is a technique which is used
for quality control and reserach for determining the content and purity of a
sample and its molecular structure. For example, NMR can quantitatively analyze
mixtures containing known compounds. For unknown compounds, NMR can either be
used to match against spectral libraries or to infer the basic structure
directly. Once the basic structure is known, NMR can be used for determining
the molecular conformation in solution as well as studying physical properties
at the molecular level such as conformational exchange, phase changes,
solubility, and diffusion. In order to achieve the desired results, a variety
of NMR techniques are available.

MASS
SPECTROSCOPY(MS); is an
analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and differentiate the ions
on the bases of their mass-to-charge ratio. In simple terms, a mass
spectrum measures the masses within a sample. Mass spectrometry is used
in many different fields and is applied to pure samples as well as complex
mixtures.

RAMAN
SPECTROSCOPY; Raman spectroscopy is a form of vibrational spectroscopy, just
like infrared (IR) spectroscopy. However, whereas IR bands comes from a change
in the dipole moment of a molecule because of an interaction of light with the
molecule, Raman bands arise from a change in the polarizability of the molecule
due to the same interaction. Its means that these observed bands (corresponding
to specific energy transitions) comes from specific molecular vibrations.Raman spectroscopy is frequently used in chemistry to provide
a structural fingerprint by which molecules can be identified.

X-RAY DIFFRACTION; Its a
phenomenon in which the atoms of a crystal, by virtue of their uniform spacing,
cause an interference pattern of the waves present in an incident beam of X
rays. The atomic planes of the crystal act on the X rays in exactly the same
manner as does a uniformly ruled grating on a beam of light. See also Bragg
law; Laue diffraction pattern.

x

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