At and solve conflict. It requires for the manager

the Mercure Opéra Garnier, managers tend to avoid conflicts and try to
anticipate. They organize cross-training and team building activities to create
a good atmosphere in the staff. However, when conflicts do arise, managers try
to listen to both parties to have every sides of the story. They organize
meetings to try to resolve the conflict and find a common ground.

of the principal role of the manager is to manage and solve conflict. It
requires for the manager to be an active listener and have skills in
communication. The best way to manage conflict is anticipation: a manager needs
to identify and address underlying tensions before things start to deteriorate (CIPD,
2008). A manager also needs to be able to take a final decision when the
conflict is getting in the way of the business performance. Moreover the
manager needs to have interactions with its employees, show the right behavior
and provide clear information about what is expected of them. Finally, a
conflict can have a positive outcome. It can solve problems previously ignored,
encourage new ideas and change (Baron, 1991). It helps push the boundaries and
create new basis for the group.

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5 different ways are: Avoidance, Competition, Accommodation, Compromise, and

Cooperativeness which is the attempt of
satisfying the other’s concern

Assertiveness which is the attempt of
satisfy your own concern

to Thomas & Kilmann (2010),
there are 5 ways of handling conflict classified by 2 dimensions:

conflict is a situation where individuals pursue opposite goals or the same
goal but in a competitive way. An organization is a potential source of
conflict because it regroups multiple stakeholders with different objectives.
Those conflicts can be interpersonal, that is, between two colleagues or an
employee and a customer which happens often in a hotel, or intergroup between
two department in the same company.


2.5 Identifying and managing conflict
sensitively but firmly

the Mercure, every employee has his own objectives according to his
performance. Objectives are mostly about up-sales and the sales of membership
card of AccorHotels and are rewarded with a bonus. The earning of the bonus is
degressive according to the percentage of the objectives achieved. For example,
if an employee only achieved 70% of the objectives, he will receive 70% of the
total bonus. Those objectives are updated every year. Moreover, a part of the
feedback are related to comments of the guests online. When a guest leaves a
good comment online about employees, this comment is displayed on a board in the
back office.

            The performance of a company is
linked to its employee’s motivation and involvement. To monitor performance,
managers need to implement assessments, feedbacks and appropriate objectives to
the employees. Measurement and performance appraisal is the basis to create
feedback. It helps identify when things are going well to then adjust and
improve the objectives. It also indicates when things are not going well so
that the manager can implement actions to reduce the under-performance (Armstrong,
2006). Under-performance can be detected through several indicators such as
turnover, absenteeism, demotivation or a decrease in the quality of service.
Feedback is a way to reduce this issue by enhancing performance and
communication. It provides useful information to guide the managers in his
behavior toward his employees (London and Beatty, 1993). Using regular and
constructive feedback helps the company achieving its goals and defining new
ones. Mostly, managers need to improve the employees’ motivation by giving them
achievable objectives and make them share the company’s values.


2.4 Dealing promptly with problems and
underperformance, giving objectives and constructive feedback

            At the Mercure, each head of
department proceeds to an annual individual assessment of each employee to see
if any employee need a particular training according to his needs and those of
the hotel. Training are chosen according to the needs of the company but also
the needs of the brand. Indeed, AccorHotels recently implemented a new welcome
programs for its guests. Thus, the general manager attended a training session
at the “Accor Académie” to receive an accreditation to then train his own
employees about the new process.

            To meet the development needs of the
organization, the company has to implement the right training for its
employees. Therefore, managers can use different methods to assess the training
needs such as a Training Needs Analysis (TNA). TNA was designed to be the first
step to identify the learning needs of the staff (Gould, Kelly, White and Chidgey, 2004). To identify
training needs, a company has to examine the overall performance, define what
can be improve with a good training of the employees. The company can also
compare itself to other organizations in the industry using benchmarking.
Finally managers can perform individual assessments to identify the gap between
the current level of the employee and the required skills and abilities needed
to meet the objectives (Watts, 2010). The implementation of suitable training
will increase the motivation of the employees, improve their skills and capabilities
which will help maximize business benefit.


2.3 Arranging for suitable training that
meets identified development needs to maximize business benefit

            At Mercure, the managerial team try
to implement a high standard of service for the guest by modeling the expected
behavior. Managers try to involve as much as possible the employees in the
decision-making process so that the organization standards of presentation and
objectives of performance are respected. They can also simply roll up their
sleeves and help employees at the lower level of the company.

can successfully induce followers to have a certain behavior. One way is by
leading by example which is committing to behaviors that is used as an example
and inspiration to others (Drouvelis and Nosenzo, 2012). Managers need to
define a certain behavior and attitude to adopt and make sure that everyone
follows the organizational policies. The leader needs to promote cooperation,
participation and collaboration if he wants to create a team with high
performance (Ross, 2008). A team will be more likely to follow the example of a
manager with a positive and inspiring leadership style. Indeed, according to
Lewin, the most effective type of leadership is democratic. A democratic leader
has high performance rate, cohesion, satisfaction and the support of team


2.2 Leading by example, exhibiting
organizational standards of presentation, behavior and performance

the Mercure Opéra Garnier, there is a meeting every week with the general
manager and heads of department to discuss about the performance of the hotel
or any issues. There is also a meeting twice a week between the general manager
and the revenue manager to talk about the price strategy. Moreover the general
manager is open to discussion and any employee can request a one on one meeting
if he needs to.

            Expectations and requirements are
communicated from the policies and procedures, the recruitment process (job
description and specification), training or performance appraisal. Policies and
training can be created to reinforce the ethical behaviors expected from the
employees. Job advertisement often regroups the job description (tasks and
responsibilities needed for the position) and the job specification (knowledge,
skills and experience) which give an explanation of the expectations to the
candidate. Finally, expectations can be written into annual performance goals
and performance appraisal can be conducted to ensure that the employee is
meeting those expectations (Murphy and Cleveland, 1995).

the transmission of the information can be through formal communication witch
is officially recognized by the organization or informal channels such as
gossip witch sometimes compensates with the lack of clarity of the formal
channels (Kandlousi, Ali and Adbollahi, 2010). Communication can be internal
(top-down, bottom-up, lateral) within the staff of the organization or external
with customers, suppliers or investors.

Figure 2: Shannon and Weaver model of communication







to the Shannon and Weaver model, communication can be defined as the
circulation of the information between 2 people: the transmitter and the
receiver. To go further, we can say that circulate the information is not
enough to ensure the communication. There is a need for a feedback to make sure
the receiver understand the message conveyed (See Figure 2).