As community and (c) what would they have to

As the global economy tends to become more progressive, organizations that
successfully retain their workforce have more advantage over organizations that
cannot. Shaw and Delery (2005) states that employee turnover intentions negatively
effects organizational performance. Hatch and Dyer (2004) summarized such
findings with the observation that “firms with high turnover significantly under-perform
their rivals”. Voluntary employee turnover is an issue that leads to major
direct and indirect costs (Sagie et al., 2002). Ulrich and Smallwood (2006)
state that organizations currently are very keen in exploring reasons behind employee
intention to leave their jobs and also findings approaches that might help with
employee retention. Although job satisfaction has classically been the
predominant construct used to explain turnover, recently a new construct, job
embeddedness, has been relatively successful at explaining additional variance
in turnover beyond the traditional constructs, such as job satisfaction (Mitchell
et al., 2001). In contrast to job satisfaction which is an attitudinal
construct focusing on an individual’s orientation toward his or her job, job embeddedness
is a construct looking at the connections that bind individuals to their job,
organization of employment, and community. Therefore, job embeddedness focus is
larger than job satisfaction’s and job embeddedness is more than just an
attitudinal construct.


Mitchell,(2001b) introduced new construct Job embeddedness that assesses
factors from on and off the job, it includes an employee (a) links to other
people, teams and groups, (b) perception of employee fit with his/her job,
organization and community and (c) what would they have to sacrifice if they
left their job. Job embeddedness predicts employee intent to quit, voluntary
turnover and reasons beyond job satisfaction and organizational commitment. At present retaining
employees has become the top most priority for top-level managers. Given options,
employees stay if they are satisfied with their job and will stay committed to
their organization and will leave if they aren’t. However, the research in
scientific journals report that job attitudes play only small role in employee
retention (Hom and Gaertner, 2000). Job embeddedness is a, “broad cluster of
ideas” (Holtom & Inderrieden, 2006). It is a cumulative of ideas about how
a web of connections secures individuals to their communities and their work
organizations. The term job embeddedness is indeed more specific than its
actual use (Ng and Feldman, 2007). It may be more apt to say that the term strokes
aspects of job, organization, occupation, and community embeddedness. Other
factors besides job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job
alternatives are important for understanding turnover (Maertz & Campion,

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