the majority of research of mindfulness applications in clinical and
non-clinical settings is for the adult population, there is an increased interest of applications and benefits of
mindfulness practices for children (Black, Milam, & Susman, 2009: Burke,
2010). Mindfulness practices have been successfully applied to adolescents with
symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Herbert and
Esparham (2017) review of mindfulness based interventions (MBIs), such as yoga
and meditation for ADHD, found positive improvements with little or no side
effects when compared to pharmacological treatment. Mindfulness interventions to treat ADHD for
children appear to have positive co-relations for both children and parents.
This application demonstrates significant reductions of signs and symptoms of
ADHD in children and have beneficial effect on reducing stress in parents, thus
improvement in parenting style can have a direct effect on child behavioural
outcome (Bögels, Hellemans, van Deursen, Römer,
& van der Meulen, 2013; van der Oord, Bögels, & Peijnenburg, 2011).
Similarly, Biegel et al. (2009) reported significant reduction in anxiety and
depression symptoms and improved self-esteem and sleep quality in adolescent
psychiatric outpatients using MBSR in comparison to treatment as usual
The open clinical case study trials of
five children investigated feasibility of mindfulness practice application
adapted from MBRS and MBCT as a treatment for anxiety. The findings suggest
that there is a potential in improving anxiety symptoms and attention using
mindfulness practices (Semple, Reid, & Miller, 2005).
Cotton et al. (2015) studied the effects
of MBCT of adolescents with anxiety disorder who are at risk for bipolar
disorder. Overall, nine out of ten participants reported usefulness and
acceptability of the programme, in terms of it being helpful to manage their
anger, becoming less worried and patient, as well as helping children at school
and in their home interactions too. (Cotton et al., 2015).
Mindfulness practices has also shown to
improve sleep and mental health distress in adolescents with substance abuse
for those who successfully completed MBSR intervention. Although during the
course there was a high dropout rate (23 out of 55 complete the course), those
who completed the treatment showed better sleep quality as well as decrease in
substance abuse after a 12 month follow up review (Bootzin, & Stevens, 2005).
Following clinical success over the
years, mindfulness based practices have been naturally accepted for school
based psychologists and incorporated in treatment with children for wide range
of health issues (Albrecht, Albrecht,
& Cohen, 2012).