Allium the Latin word given to garlic, a flowering
plant with hundreds of separate species;
which many have been gathered through human history, One of the species belong
to this (related group of living things) is the Allium sativum L. Also known as
the (helped to grow) garlic, which belong to the onion family Alliaceae and
closely related to the onion, shallot, leek, chive, and rakkyo. It has been
used throughout recorded history for both food-related and medicinal propose.
Garlic plant is moderately tall (up to three feet) it is an erect herb common
grown as a once-a-year that is a plant that only last for a year, it has
adventious roots and shortened flattened stem and narrow flat leaves. The bulb
consists of 6 to 35 bulblets called cloves with glistering and clear covering,
the plant grows as a vegetable rosette close to the ground, the leaves is
broad. They grow in different conditions from dry, well-drained mineral-based soil
to moist organic soil, most grow in sunny locations but a number also grow in
forests, or even in swap water areas.
Allium sativum L. consist of sulfur containing
compounds such as allicin, alliin, ajoene, dially disulfide, dithiin and
Sallylcysteine.These large number of sulfur compounds responsible for the smell
and taste of garlic. Dially disulfide is most neccessory compound which
contribute in distinct and sharp odour in the garlic. Allicin gives the
spiciness of the raw garlic and it is also a powerful antibiotic and antifungal
compound, allicin majorly serves as anti-inflammatory effect. Garlic contains
essential oil, which is extracted by process of steam distillation of the
garlic cloves using n-hexane as solvent. Essential garlic oil contains variety
of sulfide such as dially disulfide and dilly trisulfide. During the processing
allicin is completely eliminated from the oil. Commercially available garlic
oil capsules generally contain vegetable oil and a small amount of garlic
essential oil because of the pungent odors.
Other garlic supplements fall into one of these
categories, dehydrated garlic powder, garlic oil macerate and aged garlic extract.
Garlic oil has plentiful uses in the world today, its uses include the
flavouring in cuisine like salads, and sauces. The garlic oil can reduce blood
pressure if regularly consume, prevention from cardiovascular disease. Garlic
oil is an efficient anti-viral, antibiotic, anti-fungal agent, which can use in
prevention from diarrhea, cough and nausea. Some studies have found results
that it can also fight against cancer.
Sampling before testing done and removal of transparent
covering of garlic was removed manually and sun-dried for two weeks. Powdered
the dry garlic cloves, then sieved and stored in a covered plastic container.
The physiochemical analyses were carried out in triplicates unless otherwise
The extraction of garlic oil was accomplished with a
soxhlet extractor using n-hexane (boiling point of 40ºC – 60ºC) for six hours.
The oil obtained under reduced temperature and pressure and refluxing at 70ºC
so the removal of solvent from extracted oil product and recover solvent can be
reused. The garlic oil was stored in freezer at 2ºC for succeeding
They obtained chemical analysis which can predict
oil quality such as peroxide value, iodine value, saponification value, free
fatty acid value, acid value by using standard methods. They also interpreted
physical parameters of garlic oil, such color which is light yellow, specific
gravity lower than water 0.9, odor pungent due to allicin and oil yield is
From chemical analysis of garlic oil they compare
their results with different oil like shea butter, cotton seed oil. Peroxide
value tells deterioration of oil due to oxidation. The low peroxide value 2.50
± 0.50% found from garlic oil when compared to palm kernel oil 3.58% indicates
that the oil can be kept for a very long period of time. Acid value: The acid
value 4.18 ± 0.01mgKOH/g obtained from the oil is low when compared to Sheanut
butter oil 10.3mgKOH/g and high when compared to 2.39 ± 0.065mgKOH/g, for
castor oil, thus the higher the acid value of an oil, the lower its storage
quality and vice-versa. It shows that the garlic oil have an tremendous storage
quality when compared to that of Sheanut butter oil. Free fatty acid (oleic
acid), determine the appropriateness of the oil for edibility or industrial
uses. The free fatty acid value is 2.10 ± 0.05% which is low when compared to
the Hyptus spicigera seed oil 3.50%, its shows that it is good for eating.
Iodine value determines the proportion of unsaturated acid or fat and oil
present, but the test determines the amount of iodine absorbed per gram of
sample. The determination of iodine value determines the reaction of the double
bonds with halogen. The iodine value 12.69 ± 0.05g/100g which was gained from
the oil is low when compared to 16.0g/100g Tiger nut oil. The oil shows quite degree
of unsaturated fatty acid which indicates that the oil is suitable for utilization.
They concluded from
results that garlic oil indicated good quality, chemical analyses presented
saponification value, peroxide value, acid value, free fatty acid and Iodine
values that fell within the range of those acceptable as having good potential
for soap production and with an tremendous storage property.