Afrânio forms. With the Baroque and its variant Rococo

Afrânio Coutinho, interprets Brazilian literature as the expression of the nativist experiences in the New World. But Coutinho also underscores that Brazilian literature was born under the influence of the Baroque through the writings of Jesuits such as Anchieta. In this same vein, Antônio Cândido, in his Formação da LiteraturaBrasileira emphasizes the European genesis of Brazilian letters and how the civilization was shaped by the colonial experience. Although Brazilian literature is considered to have its “official” origins in the nineteenth century, during the decade following Brazil’s independence, most scholars, like Cândido, recognize local literature as emerging in the eighteenth century. Within this literature is embedded a distinctly Brazilian cultural context, even though these works make use of European aesthetics and Classical forms. With the Baroque and its variant Rococo in Brazil flourishing up to the mid eighteenth century, this metaphorical style of  HYPERLINK “” rhetoric with its play on words can be found in the satirical poetry of the irreverent seventeenth-century poet Gregório de Matos Guerra. Nicknamed Boca do Inferno, owing to his vicious barbs concerning the social injustices in the colony, Matos wrote in a colloquial tone that already betrayed impulses of a Brazilian style. The Baroque can also be found in the prose of Father Antônio Vieira, a powerful and learned Portuguese Jesuit who spent many years as a missionary among the Indians in the Amazon and the Northeast. Recognized for his fifteen volumes of sermons published between 1679 and 1748, Vieira addressed religious and sociopolitical issues in a florid rhetorical style that became well known throughout Latin America.In the mid eighteenth century, literature began to manifest a strong interest in Neoclassical forms of Arcadianism  as practiced by the Minas school of poets, who wrote epic and Neoclassical verse that combined personal lyrics with descriptions of nature and Classical ideals. Greatly influenced by the Enlightenment, these poets formed a “conspiracy” in 1789 with the aim of promoting political independence. The abortive Inconfidência Mineira nevertheless made national heroes of these literary figures, who later were celebrated by several Romantic poets. Two epic poets of the eighteenth century were Basílio da Gama and José de Santa Rita Durão. As part of the Minas school, they wrote, respectively, O Uraguai andCaramuru: poemaépico do descobrimento da Bahiaboth epics glorified the indigenous peoples as noble savages while praising the natural beauty of the land. Durão’s poem, loosely modeled on the form of the Portuguese epic Os Lusíadas by Luís de Camões, with its detail of native life, an example of exuberant nativism and a precursor to Romantic Indianism. The lyrical poetry of this school, notable for pastoral verses, is to be found in the work of Cláudio Manuel da Costa and in TomásAntônio Gonzaga’s three-part Marília de Dirceu an amatory tribute to his muse, called Marília. As pre-Romantics, these poets led the way toward a burgeoning national literature.Faced with the invention of a past overshadowed by Portuguese control, Brazilians were propelled by the themes of nationalism, primitivism, and Indianism all inspired by the aesthetics of European Romanticism to glorify the exuberance of the tropical land and the mythical life of the noble savage as images that enhanced nationalist spirit and expression. Therefore, culture and politics converged to formulate the ideology of the Brazilian national state. While Romanticism did produce works of pure subjectivism, the patriotic image of homeland predominated. Brazilian Romanticism   began with the publication of Domingos José Gonçalves de Magalhães’s Suspiros poéticos e saudadesa volume of intimate and lyrical poetry. Magalhães, along with other intellectuals and writers, is also credited with having introduced Romanticism to Brazil via the publication in Paris of Niterói: revista brasiliense, recognized as Brazil’s official Romantic manifesto. Magalhães is also known as one of the initial figures to encourage the theme of Indianism