According to Jona
Lendering (MA, History, MA Mediterranean Culture) the war with Persia was
continued, and democracy was developed. After the war was over, Pericles
started a building program. The anti-Persian Delian League formed the Athenian
Empire and towns that wanted to leave the alliance were forced to stay. In 431,
the Peloponnesian War broke out and Pericles had made a strategy to evacuate
the rural area and move behind the Long Walls and attack Sparta’s allies
through the sea. It was turned out to be a financial disaster for Athens.
Pericles was dethroned in 430 but was back immediately. He died in 429 and it
saved Athens as they had a better planner, Cleon. He was able to improve the
financial status of Athens.
The author is an
interested individual and the article she has written is not peer reviewed, but
the information seems to be a reasonable as she provides the information of the
new leader after Pericles died. There is an image present, but it has no
relationship to the content of the article. The author does not provide any
evident purpose to publish the article.
The article is a part of Encyclopedia
of World Biography by Suzanne M. Bourgoin (credentials unknown). The article
elaborated the life of Pericles. He was a leader for a long period and the year
446 to 429 was called Periclean Age. It was the age of political power and
artistic achievement. Pericles was the son of Xanthippus, also a statesman. He
inherited great wealth. He received the best education available and studied
music. The political career of Pericles is divided into two parts. First, when
he had the position to banish his opponent, Thucydides. He was given financial
responsibilities to build Long Walls which linked Athens and Piraeus. Second,
his foreign policy was to suppress revolts in Athens and to resist Sparta. It
resulted in a war between Sparta and Athens, Pericles thought of attacked from
the sea and not land because of which the Athenians were stuck inside the Long
Wall. He was fined and then re-elected. He died in 429 BCE.
The article is not peer
reviewed, but the Encyclopedia is. It is a reasonable source of information as
it is a scholarly source and has a lot of information about Pericles. There are
no images present in the article. The author has not provided with any reason
to publish the article. The website is a business and provide endless
The Oxford Classical
Dictionary edited by Simon Hornblower is a BA and MA honours in Literae
Humaniores and has completed his DPhil with a thesis entitled Maussollos of
Karia. According to the book, Pericles was an Athenian Politician. According to
Plutarch, he became a popular leader and an man with influence in Athens. He
proposed for thee Greeks to unite but was not possible because of the resistance
with Sparta. Pericles was involved in the Public Building Programme between 440
and 430 BCE. Plutarch said, he was elected again and again and became an
unchallenged leader. In the 430s the Peloponnesian War begin and Pericles
decided to stay inside the walls when they attacked and to rely on the
financial resources they have. Pericles
was an aristocrat and later became a democratic leader. Plutarch also refers to
the statement by Plato, that earlier Pericles was political speaker and later
became a great leader. He was never concerned with his family.
The information provided seems to be
reasonable as it is a scholarly source, so the information shall be
appropriate. It is concise and appropriate. There are no images provided and
the indented audience is students, teachers, research workers. The author does
not provide any evident purpose in publishing the source, but it is a useful
source of information for keen learners.
Dictionary is very similar to other sources. It provides information regarding
his life but also mentions that during the war Pericles decided to stay inside
the wall. Jona Lendering provides the details which are very similar to the
Dictionary. On the other hand, the Encyclopedia of World Biography is detailed
and focuses more on his political career. It is different from the other sources.
A peer reviewed article was not found.