According 1. The Idea of Plural a. Saya mempunyai

According to Terigan (1990:59),
contrastive analysis is an activity to compare the structure of L1 with L2.
This contrastive analysis is expected to help the learners of L2 to learn more easily. To make it
easier to understand the notion of contrastive analysis, we must understand the
meaning of two words that arrange the phrase of contrastive analysis. Analysis
is defined as a description that aims to know something and it is possible to
find the core problem. While, Moeliono (1988:32) explains that contrastive is
defined as the difference between two things and the word of contrastive is
more well known in linguistics.

Contrastive analysis is
used in the teaching of the second language. It uses a comparison method in its
application that is to compare between the different elements with the same
elements. The main point of this contrastive analysis is focused on different
linguistic elements. According to Jie (2008:36), “Contrastive analysis stresses the
influence of the mother tongue in learning a second language in phonological,
morphological, lexical and syntactic levels. It holds that second language
would be affected by first language”. There are many differences found in the
linguistic structures between the mother tongue with the second language, for
instance like Indonesian language with English language.

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This paper aims to know the differences
between Indonesian language with English language. It will discuss about the
differences in both languages on morphology, syntax, and sociolinguistic
levels. It will explain three language aspects in Indonesian language and
English language to know the differences found in both languages. First, this
paper will discuss about the term of plural. It will explain about the
differences that occur in the idea of plural between Indonesian language and
English language. Second, it will discuss about the comparison of passive
sentence between Indonesian language and English language. Last, this paper will
discuss about the comparison of gender orientation versus kinship orientation in Indonesian language and English
language.

 

1.      The Idea of Plural

a.       Saya mempunyai sebuah buku

I have a book

b.      Para mahasiswa (mahasiswa-mahasiswa) sedang belajar tentang
ilmu bahasa

Students are studying about
linguistics

c.       Para wanita (wanita-wanita) memiliki sebuah
kesempatan bekerja di kantor

Women have a chance working in
office

From the examples above,
we know that there are some
differences in expressing the idea of plural in Indonesian language and
English language. In English language, to show plural noun is by giving the suffix –s or
–es on noun. While if there is a single noun, there are no sufix –s or –es before noun, but
there are articles like a, an, and the before noun. In Indonesian language, like the
examples above, the word of ‘students’ that shows the plural noun is
translated as ‘para mahasiswa or mahasiswa-mahasiswa’. The word of ‘para’ has shown a plural noun  in Indonesian language. In addition,
Indonesian people also often use the repetition of word to say the plural noun
like ‘mahasiswa-mahasiswa’. Then, in English language, to refer ‘woman’ or ‘man’ in plural noun changes
from woman to women and from man to men.  

2.      The Passive Sentence

In passive sentence, especially in English
langauge, the subject of sentence refers to the actor of the action of the
verb. Subject becomes the focus of the passive sentence. While in Indonesian
language, the focus of the passive sentence is the object of the sentence. It
doesn’t occur in English language, except in relative clause not in passive
sentence.

a.       My cat has been bought by Tomi

Kucing saya sudah dibeli oleh Tomi

Kucing saya sudah dibeli Tomi

Kucing saya sudah Tomi beli

b.      My book is borrowed by Diana

Buku saya dipinjam oleh Diana

Buku saya dipinjam Diana

Buku saya Diana pinjam

c.       The cake is not eaten by Devi

Kue itu tidak dimakan oleh Devi

Kue itu tidak dimakan Devi

Kue itu tidak Devi makan

Tidak Devi makan kue itu

Passive sentence is rarely
used in speech, but it often finds in academic writing. In English language,
passive voice sentence is formed from be + verb 3 (past particle). While in Indoneisan language, the structure of
passive voice sentence is by adding di- before a verb (di + verb) such
as dibeli, dipinjam, and dimakan.. The examples above, for
instance, are three passive sentences in English language. The form of passive sentence
in the first example is has/have + been + V3 (has been bought). The
first passive sentence in the example above can be translated in three different sructures of sentence in Indonesian language. The passive sentence in Indonesian
language ‘kucing saya sudah Tomi beli’ never occurs in the sentence
structure of English language. The sentence does not match with the sentence
structure of English language. Then, the form of passive voice sentence in the
second example above is be + V3 (is borrowed). It can also be translated
in Indonesian language by using three different structures of sentence. Last,
the form of negative sentence for passive sentence in the third example above
is be + not +V3 (is not eaten). The sentence can be translated in
Indonesian language by using four different structures of sentence. The
sentence of ‘tidak Devi makan kue itu’ is never found in the sentence
structure of English language. It will only occur in the sentence structure of
Indonesian language. In Indonesian language, it is still acceptable.

3.      Gender versus Kinship Orientation

Ø 
Gender Orientation

a.       Dia membeli sepatu di London

She buys a shoe in London

He buys a shoe in London

b.      Saya mencintainya

I love her

I love him

c.       Anak itu sedang belajar matematika

The boy is studying mathematics

The girl is studying mathematics

d.      Anak saya suka makan apple

My son likes to eat an apple

My daughter likes to eat an apple

e.       kakak saya sedang pergi ke Bandung

My sister is going to Bandung

My brother is going to Bandung

The term of gender
orientation is often used in English language. It is used in the form of
pronoun, both subject and object. In English language, there are pronouns for
subject and object based on gender orientation such as she, he, her, and
him. While in
Indonesian language, people use the word of “dia” referring to a single
third person without paying attention what gender they have. There are also many terms to differ
subject in English language. One of them is used to
differentiate siblings. In English language, there
are words of “sister” and “brother” to differentiate male and female siblings in English
language. There are also words to differ male and female child that are “son” and “daughter”. While in Indonesian language, the
term of gender orientation is not used to distinguish between male and female. When
talking about child, Indonesian people say “anak” that has referred to
male and female child. When talking about siblings, Indonesian people commonly say “kakak” or “adik” without referring what
sex the siblings have. Thus, English people speak about sibling and child by
using gender oriented language in their daily life.

Ø 
Kinship Orientation

a.       Sari (she) is a beautiful teacher

Mbak Sari adalahseorang guru yang
cantik

Nak Sari merupakan seorang guru yang
cantik

Saudari Sari merupakan seorang guru
yang cantik

b.      Galih (he) is a head of social organization in society

Pak Galih merupakan ketua organisasi
sosial di masyarakat

Saudara Galih merpakan ketua
organisasi sosial di masyarakat

In Indonesian language,
the term of kinship orientation is very well known. It is often used in a
conversation. The cultural background supports the terms of kinship orientation
to be used by Indonesian people in a conversation and it creates a respectful
relationship with others. If there is someone who has close and good
relationship with us, we will treat him or her differently with someone who has
no close relationship with us. In Indonesian language, the words of “Mbak,
Nak, Pak, Saudara, and Saudari” show a politeness to respect others.
While in English language, kinship oriented
language is never used in daily conversation.

In conclusion, this paper
discusses first about the explanation of what contrastive analysis is. There
are some theories about contrastive analysis given by some experts. Second,
this paper discusses about what language aspects used to differ between two languages,
Indonesian and English language. Third, it gives some examples of three
language aspects of Indonesian and English language to find the differences
between both languages. The three language aspects used as the examples above
are the term of plural, the term of passive voice sentence, and the idea of
gender and kinship orientation. The examples above can help learners of a
second language to know the differences between the mother tongue and the
second language easily.

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