Academic reading habits, others tend to exhibit low reading

achievement employs an outcome of a person who has cultivated either their
short term or long term goals and attainment of educational degrees such as
high school and bachelor’s degree that centers on activities which are school,
college and university.

is appreciated by civilization because the uyilization of scientific knowledge
helps to satisfy many basic human needs and improve the  standards of living. It is intellectual and factual activity including the
logical study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world
through observation an experiment.

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There are thrive of
Literature on the relevance between reading habits and academic performance.
Academic achievement also means how much knowledge the individual has gained
from the school (Bashir & Matto, 2012). According to them, reading and
academic achievement are crucila for research workers and educationists to know
that every child whether brilliant, average, normal or backward should be
educated in his or her own way but if he or she bear good study habits, he or
she can achieve well in academics and in every situation. It is the reading
habits which help the learner in attain relevant and fascinating knowledge. A
good reading habits can act as a strong armament for the students to excel in
life. Owusu-Acheaw, (2014) characterize reading habits as well planned and
calculated pattern of study which has attained a form of compactness on the
part of students toward acumen academic subjects and passing at examinations. He
mentioned that reading habits determine the academic achievements of students
to a great extent.


Both reading and academic achievements are
interdependent and on each other. Students come from different background and
level of society with different levels of academic achievement. Therefore they
differ in the motivation and reading habits. While some students have positive
reading habits, others tend to exhibit low reading habits.

Studying at the university/college level normally requires reading and
learning from challenging expository texts on peculiar science domain. Research
shows that reading comprehension predicts explicit course exercise and even
overall college performance (Royer, Marchant, Sinatra, & Lovejoy, 1990).
Yet students’ ability to comprehend scientific texts is often inadequate (Snow,
2002), as reading such a text is a complex cognitive task (Nist & Holschuh,

and Writing to learn science. According to Shawn M. Glynn and K. Denise Muth
(1994) Learning from science textbooks and other print-based materials should
be relevant, conceptually integrated, and active:

To perform this task efficiently, students must acquire accessible
conceptual knowledge about a particular domain and must apply text processing
strategies. When the conceptual knowledge is inadequate and when the
familiarity with the text is low, reading strategies are particularly important
(McNamara, 2004; Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1984).

passive, isolated,  learning is boring,
easily forgotten, and inapplicable (Alexander & Kulikowich, 1994; Glynn
& Britton, 1984). There is evidence that even experienced
readers face some difficulty in applying elaborate comprehension strategies
during reading complex scientific text (Graesser, 2007). In Wood, Motz, and
Willoughby’s study (1998) students indicated that their experience with
sophisticated strategies did not occur until high school, and perhaps even

comprehend fundamentally important concepts in science textbooks, students need
activities and strategies that support active, process-oriented learning
(Norris & Phillips, 1994; Pressley, Borkowski, & Schneider, 1990). Some
possible activities for learning science include asking students to read

Reading Techniques Help students Master Science. According to
Francie Diep it was mentioned that in a study of
1,651 high school students from three states, reading ability was just as
important to students’ Science-class grades and scores on state-level Science
tests as the amount of Science knowledge they had.  The study found reading skill was even more
important than such background knowledge for correctly answering questions
based on passages about Science.

There are some studies and articles also related to this
research.  In one of the study by Mary
Lee Barton and Deborah L. Jordan, A Supplement to Teaching Reading in the
Content Areas: If Not Me, Then Who?  They
mentioned that reading Science text and textbooks require the same critical
thinking, analysis, and active engagement as performing hands-on science
activities.  Science and reading have
many process skills in common.  As Armbruster
(1993) contends, “The same skills that make good scientists also make good
readers: engaging prior knowledge, forming hypotheses, establishing plans,
evaluating knowledge, determining the relative importance of information,
describing patterns, comparing and contrasting, making inferences, drawing
conclusions, generalizing, evaluating sources, and so on” .


Habits Among Students and its Effect on Academic Performance. According
to Micheal Owusu Acheaw (2014) concluded the study revealed that 62.5% of the
respondents acknowledge the importance of reading and said reading helps them
to express themselves better. However, the study also found that 81.9% had not
read a novel or fiction within the two preceding semesters and only 18% said
they had read a novel or fiction within the same period. The study further
confirmed that 75.0% respondents engage in reading just to pass an examination.
It was also confirmed in the study that 62.0% of the respondents visit the
library to read lecture notes, 25.0% to read textbooks and only 3.0% visit the
library to read novels or fiction. The study revealed that majority of the
respondents had the view that reading habits have effect on academic exercise
and that there is a direct relationship between reading habits and academic
performance. The study further found out that laziness is one of the basic
hindrances to reading among the respondents.


of Reading Ability on Academic Performance at the Primary Level. Caleb
Bartholet Cimmiyotti (2013) concluded Comparison of Findings with Existing
Studies This study’s findings correlating reading and math exercises expand
upon and support the Vilenius-Tuohimaa, et al. (2008) study, which found
that text comprehension skills were related to the ability of students to solve
math word problems. Although this study focused on the correlation between
reading and math performance, the broader concept of reading being linked to
other academic content areas is supported by this study in conjunction with the
results of Cromley’s (2009) study, which correlated reading and science
achievement, and the Espin and Deno (1993) study, which found basic literacy
and academic success were related. The method and focus of this study is
similar to these other studies as well.


research of Espin and Deno (1993) examined the relationship between basic reading
literacy and academic success by looking at reading measures, much like this
current study did. However, this current study focused on math cumulative
assessments, the curriculum benchmarks and state standardized test, as opposed
to examining student performance in a more general sense based on tasks,
grades, and achievement tests in multiple subject areas. This study also
examined a wider age range of students than the Vilenius-Tuehimaa, Aunola, and
Nurmia (2008) study which had a narrow focus on fourth grade students and their
text comprehension skills and ability to solve math word problems. This study
included those distink skills in conjunction with others, such as vocabulary,
reading fluency, and basic number problems

the first aim of the study was to explore relations between reading and
academic achievement for STEM student

The second
aim of the study was to examine relationship between different strategies and
reading comprehension. First, we determine what particular reading materials
they choose to read and second, we examined how often they read those reading
materials. The final aim was to examine the contribution of these strategies to
their academic achievements.