Abstract The transaction is now complete. In today’s society,

Abstract

In
today’s society, we are overwhelmed with the constant advances and adaptions by
technology. Since digital data has become more prevalent, young business
professionals have learned to secure information with encrypted passwords and
identification cards. The misuse and theft of these security procedures are on
the rise because of cards being duplicated, misused, and/or counterfeit.  This growing clash with cybersecurity has led
to the adoption of biometric security systems.  With biometric systems vastly approaching our
business societies, security implementation and overall user acceptance have to
be discussed. Whether we agree or disagree that biometrics will impact or
negate corporations around the world, biometrics are already beginning enactments
in businesses worldwide. There are various opportunities for biometrics,
followed by the uses, benefits, drawbacks, and applications.

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Introduction
of the Implementation of Biometrics

Imagine
going to a popular department store to buy a pair of shoes. Proceeding to the
register to pay, instead of reaching for your wallet or phone and typing in a
pin number, you reach out your index finger. The finger is placed on a
biometric system scanner that confirms a match in a database that is linked to
your bank account. The transaction is now complete. In today’s society, we are
overwhelmed with the constant advances and adaptions in technology.  Reduced prices have led to the increased
awareness of biometric technologies. With overall lower prices, the biometric
technology industry has made its way through into new millennium.

The
identification of individuals using biological traits and behaviors will always
be unique. Biometric technology works because of image capturing of unique
features of an individual’s fingerprint, handprint, eye retina, and face while
comparing it with a template captured previously. This sense of security is
becoming vital in many business organizations day to day activities. Because biometric
technology is vastly approaching our business societies, there are serious
security implementations and hesitation for overall user acceptance.

 

Biometrics
and Biometric Security Systems

The
U.S. Homeland Security defines biometrics as unique physical characteristics,
such as fingerprints, that can be used for automated recognition (U.S. Homeland
Security, 2017). Biometrics measure and analyze people’s physical and
behavioral characteristics. This system is mainly used for identification and
access control to identify individuals under surveillance. Biometric
authentication is a premise for the individual and unique aspects that can be
identifiers of user-specific traits. Biometric identification secures entry,
data, or access to human biological information in DNA, fingerprints, iris,
face, and voice recognition. Biometric systems include several linked components
for effective functionality.

The
question is whether or not biometrics is really effective when enhancing
business securities or doing day-to-day activities. There are concrete benefits
that biometrics offer to businesses of all sizes. The growth of biometrics in
the business sector derives from the increase in acceptance of these
technologies that can help lower costs, enhance security, and increase output.
The companies that have already implemented biometric technologies are using it
for attendance management, workforce productions, as well as efficiency and
labor management. There have been multiple developments in the field of
biometrics, which means it is now more reliable and costs are decreasing.
Biometrics offer high-level identification management security operations that
have several advantages over traditional means and now they are available to
you at lower costs (Trader, 2017). Traditional security systems are most reliant
on passwords, personal identification numbers (PIN), or smart cards. Now consumers
can achieve a higher level of authentication with biometrics systems. If a
business sets up a system correctly, consumers can use biological
characteristics such as fingerprints and iris scans, which offer unique and
accurate identification procedures. Since these features cannot be easily
duplicated, each authorized person obtains their own personal access and ensures
a high level of security. Biometrics creates a clear, definable audit trail of
transactions or activities. As a result, you get true and complete
accountability, which cannot be duplicated (Trader, 2017). There are multiple
applications and solutions of biometric technology used for security systems.

 

 

Biometric Solutions

The Federal Bureau of Investigation
(FBI) has been a longtime leader in biometrics. The FBI provides a continuous
number of services, information, and training regarding biometrics. In an
effort to connect new technologies and improve identifications, the Bureau
established the Next Generation Identification (NGI) system. The NGI is used by
the FBI for the state, local, federal, and tribal authorities to protect
families in America. This system provides the criminal justice community with
the world’s largest and most efficient electronic source of biometric and
criminal history information (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2016). Biometrics
is not only used to authenticate a person’s identity but to determine who
someone is by scanning a database of records.  One of the most notorious applications of
biometrics is fingerprinting. Fingerprints have been used for means of
identification for over two thousand years.

Fingerprinting

Alphonse Bertillon, a Parisian
anthropologist, and police desk clerk developed a method for identifying
criminals that became known as the Bertillonage technique. Bertillonage was a system
created in the 1800’s by which measurements of the body are taken for
classification and comparison purposes (Pike, n.d.). His technique charted the
length of a fingerprint, the fingerprint’s pattern, a person’s sex, and even
whether someone smokes or not. Although the Bertillonage technique is no longer
used based off of insignificant inaccuracy identification, the technique
birthed the idea of fingerprinting.

Fingerprints are mapped
through tiny ridges, valleys, and whorls on the tip of each finger. No two
people have the same fingerprints because they are totally unique. All of the
ridges of fingerprints form patterns called loops, whorls or arches. There’s a one in 64
billion chance that your fingerprint will match up exactly with someone else’s
(Watson, 2008). Fingerprints obtain more uniqueness than DNA based on each
person’s genetic material. So what about identical twins? Although identical
twins may have the same DNA, they will not have the same exact fingerprints.
This form of biometrics is ideal for biometric systems because they are easy to
classify and sort, without any change in appearance or structure. If
fingerprints are so unique and refined, how can they be recorded accurately?

            Fingerprint
scanning has already been implemented in business to effectively enhance
security and authentications. When scanning a fingerprint, a scanner has to
have a pre-saved image of the authorized finger to compare images in a linked
database to allow access. In order to allay privacy concerns,
however, fingerprint scanners do not store actual fingerprint images. Instead,
unique characteristics of the fingerprint are analyzed and stored as an
encrypted mathematical representation (Ballard, 2016). Businesses are hoping to safeguard
their sensitive data by using this form of biometrics as a viable option
because of the several benefits and low costs. This is easy to use system requires
inexpensive equipment that generally requires low power consumption. Apple’s
implantation of fingerprinting Touch ID in the iPhone 5s brought rehabilitated
interest into biometric technology, and successfully sold millions of products
with it. However, the disadvantage is that if the surface of the finger is
damaged or contains any marks, the identification becomes increasingly difficult.
Fingerprint security systems are already widely used in multiple applications
such as laptops, cell phones, USB flash drives, and other devices. Now that
Apple has already successfully implemented fingerprint touch identification
into their corporation, they have taken on the challenge to implement facial
recognition system securities.

 

            Facial Recognition Detectors

The
human face is one of the easiest characteristics known to man, which can be
used in biometric securities to identify a user. Most recently, Apple
Corporation has introduced the new “iPhone X” which has a hands-on face
identification system to unlock, authenticate, and pay through looking at the
phone. Apple calls it their revolution in recognition. Your face is now your
password (Apple, 2017).  How did they do
this? Apple used a technique called facial mapping. Face ID is enabled by the True Depth camera and
is simple to set up. It projects and analyzes more than 30,000 invisible dots
to create a precise depth map of your face (Apple, 2017). Apple, being a
big-time corporation chose to collect data from their users’ face and store
them in a database for future use.

 “Everybody’s
face is slightly different, so it’s almost like a 3D fingerprint,” says Lyndon
Smith, professor of computer simulation and machine vision at the University of
the West of England (Baggaley, 2017). Smith wants to use infrared scanning to interpret
patterns on facial features. Then he would compare them amongst a database of
known facial patterns. This system would particularly work well with stores and
banks. “Wherever you go in the world…you could, rather than carrying a card
around with a PIN and all this complexity, just simply use your face,” he says
(Baggaley, 2017). Facial recognition systems can become extremely reliable and
are already prevalent. A feature of facial recognition comes from iris
scanners. Since your eyes are obviously a part of your face, many securities
have started to use iris scans as well to help user authentication.

 

Iris Scanner & Recognition

            An iris, in anatomy, is the
pigmented muscular curtain near the front of the eye, between the cornea and the lens, which is perforated by an opening called the pupil (Britannica Encyclopedia, n.d.). The human
iris is responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupils, which
also controls the abundance of light allowed through to the retinal in order to
protect the eye’s retina. When someone steps in front of an iris scanner, the
camera focuses automatically about three to ten inches from the person’s eye.
Once the camera captures an image, the system’s computer captures the center of
the pupil, edge of the pupil, the edge of the iris, and the eyelids and
eyelashes. It will continue to analyze the patterns in the iris and translate
them into a unique code for an individual.

            According to Forbes, as identity theft increases and information safety concerns
grow, iris scanning may be the key to finally achieving true security (Newman,
2016). Iris scanners are becoming more common for high-security applications
due to the fact the people’s eyes are so unique and do not usually change over
time. This fact makes the iris ideal for biometric identification security
applications. Blind people can also use iris scanners as long as their eyes
have irises. This makes iris identification systems effective for all people no
matter if they are blind or wear contact lenses.

            The government has already
implemented the iris scanner in high-security offices for the means of
unlocking doors, computers, and machines. Although, banking companies have been
the fastest to implement and embrace consumers using iris scanners. The use of
the system in banks have great potential to make financial matters more secure,
as well as enhance and speed up many authentication processes. For example, the
Gatwick Airport in London added an iris scanner to its passenger authentication
systems and law enforcement agencies in Missouri used the technology to build
its records management and tracking system (Newman, 2016). Iris scanning
technology is becoming mainstream, and will quickly approach our daily lives at
some point in the near future.

The
Good and Bad of Biometric Security Systems

            Advantages and Disadvantages for
Businesses

Modern
technology and innovation will always rebirth advancements that will help
businesses become more powerful and efficient. Since some businesses are
already implementing biometric technology into their attendance and time
terminals, employers are becoming more and more aware of their employees being
unable to clock in for one another. This type of time theft can cost some
companies tens of thousands of dollars (or more) each year. Biometrics
characteristics are unable to be duplicated, which prevents employees from
punching in another co-worker when they aren’t in the building (Advance
Systems, 2016). The benefits of biometrics for accuracy and attendance don’t
close there. Companies have implemented biometric time clocks that help reflect
a positive return on investment or ROI. This eliminates employee theft,
inaccuracies, and buddy punching. ROI is important because businesses can lose
thousands of dollars every year just because of employee accountability. Having
automated biometric identification can be done uniformly and quick, with little
training and time.

However,
with any new technology we are faced with, businesses have to consider if a
biometric system may be effective for them or not. There will always be
questions about accuracy and privacy. Some biometrics may change over time,
such as the finger or face, meaning that the system has to be reconfigured.
These aren’t major issues, but biometric technology requires time and financial
investment. It’s clear that some businesses aren’t ready to undergo such a
change in technological advancement. It does raise privacy and security
concerns amongst individuals who may not be comfortable with such a futuristic
way of linking one’s body parts to online accounts that practically control
their own lives. The process by which the biometric is captured and mapped to
an identity is also a major downside to this security implantation. If the
servers storing biometric information is hacked, it could have extremely
serious consequences for individuals (Thakkar, 2017). In Aitel’s column on why
fingerprints and other biometrics don’t work, he enlightens readers that
biometrics can’t always be kept a secret and can’t be revoked (Aitel, 2013). He
demonstrates how people expose their biometrics everywhere. People will leave
fingerprints behind at bars and restaurants, their faces and eyes are captured
in photos and film. There’s no factual way to conceal this data 100% from the
world, Aitel declares. The ultimate question is whether consumers will be
accepting of these biometric applications, and if they would not be against
having these applications around them continually in their near future.

 

            Advantages and
Disadvantages for Consumers

The
uptake of Apple’s Touch ID and other biometric technologies for their mobile
devices has skyrocketed the cellular device market. Accessing a smartphone is
just one of the many ways that Touch ID and facial recognition can change our
daily lives.  It has already effectively
won over mass consumer discrepancies with biometric authentication. A new
study, The Retail Banking Biometrics Confidence Report, by EyeVerify finds that
consumers not only believe that biometric technologies are more secure
authenticators than passwords but also would like to have more biometrics
options for mobile banking (Mobile Payments Today, 2017). Most people today use
some form of biometrics in some way and want to have more opportunities to use
it to make their daily lives easier and more secure. People, in general, find
fingerprint, retina, and voice scanning an easy option for authentication. Biometric
servers usually require very less database memory, as the templates use small
storage. The database memory is non-transferable like passwords and is less
time consuming when trying to log into accounts. Changing passwords frequently
for security reasons can cause some inconvenience in terms of remembering and
creating a new complex password every time. The average identification time for
an identity is 5 seconds. If biometric technology continues to prove its
purpose of efficiency and acceptance, then consumers will ultimately become
more accepting of it.

On
the other hand, it is obvious that several generations are aware of their own
privacy concerns. There are many consumers concerned about fraud and identity
theft such as social security numbers, healthcare data, and financial
information. A shift to biometric-enabled security will ultimately create
profound threats to privacy and security. It makes possible privacy violations
that would make the National Security Agency’s data sweeps seem superficial by
comparison (Scientific American, 2014). Ultimately, many Americans don’t
particularly trust the government with their information. Without protective
and explicit safeguards, personal biometric data can be destined into the hands
of the government database. It is vital to know that user acceptance is a
significant challenge, especially if individuals are uncomfortable with the
idea of biometrics and see the technology as privacy-invasive.

 

 

 

Conclusion

Although
biometrics may not be the best long-term alternative for passwords, they could
potentially be safer and more efficient to use. Rather than viewing them as
separate methods to identify users, they should be viewed as complementary
methods used to verify an individual. The question whether biometric identity
verification will continue to surface the foreseeable future, but as consumers
in our society we can make sure that we continue to proactively protect our password
and biometric securities Soon we will be using our faces to pay for clothes,
groceries, pass through airport security, catch trains, and more. How to use it
without putting people at risk or invasion of privacy is a hot commodity.
Biometric system corporations will have to explain to the public that they’re
not trying to monitor people, they’re just simply trying to help people with
their everyday lives. Consumers also have to be knowledgeable of the rules to
govern the use of these technologies if they ever want to be completely
comfortable with implementing these prevalent technologies into their daily
lives.

 

 

 

 

 

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