Abstract: a skid means, a footrest and a device

Abstract: Mobility
aids
are useful for disabled patients for transportation
and a replacement for walking
especially in indoor and outdoor environment. Wheelchairs
and stretchers are the most commonly
used medical equipment for the transportation
of patients. Shifting
the patients from wheelchair to stretcher or to the medical bed is always an issue
for
the patients
and for the attendants/nurses as
well. This may even result in musculoskeletal
disorders to 
those  who  are not 
trained to do  so,
especially
 when  it  comes
 to
 the  caretakers. There is a need for a Convertible
bed for a novel paramedical
equipment which would facilitate better transport of patient in the Indian hospitals. In this paper, novel techniques to convert
bed to wheelchair and vice versa is presented. This would help even temporary disabled
patient to operate on their own.

 

Keywords : Wheelchair, transportation, Mobility Aid, Stretcher,
Microcontroller, Automation.

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I.                   
Introduction

 

Warfare from the
1850s onwards, leading to the inevitable human casualties, coupled with a most significant
increase in work-related accidents in the late 1800s and early 1900s, fuelled
the greatest advances in casualty care, and a consequential rapid evolution of
stretcher design.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.1- Horse pulled and hand  pulled stretcher

The NEIL
ROBERTSON stretcher, fitted with a skid means, a footrest and a device to hold
a helmet or other head protection remains to this day in use underground,
especially by the various cave rescue teams in England and Wales.

 

 

Fig.2
-A combination of the Neil Robertson with a skid device for use in the British
cave rescue environment, circa 1994

 

THE THOMAS
STRETCHER, was fundamentally of aluminum construction, having a canvas bed
panel, extendible handles at each corner and wooden skis to permit sledging and
to lift the casualty well clear of the ground. In much the same style as the Furley
stretcher, which was  designed  to 
collapse sideways into a narrow load for easy carrying, so too was the Thomas
stretcher originally designed to collapse sideways, again to make it easier to
carry by two people along narrow  paths
and tracks. This facility was later eliminated to reduce cost. Consequently,
the Thomas became a rigid one-piece stretcher and, as such, more cumbersome to
carry out to the scene of an accident than was originally intended by the joint
stretcher committee.

Originally, the
Joint Stretcher Committee Thomas stretcher was fitted with narrow (1.5″ x
1.25″) angled aluminum alloy skids, which were detachable. Before long,
these were replaced, one each side, by wide, full length wooden ski-like skids
having curved up ends. These curved up ends were to assist dragging procedures over
rough ground and the width underneath the stretcher sides helped to reduce
sinking into soft mud. (Technical note: ski width does not influence drag
resistance if the ground is hard enough to support the weight of the loaded stretcher).

Herein lies the
only fundamental design flaw which was not originally present. The main frame
of the stretcher was lifted up above the ground by about eight inches, by means
of shaped Aluminium castings. The flaw originated from the moment these corner
vertical support castings were modified, possibly to accept the new wide wooden
skis.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.3-

 

Some examples of
common disabilities you may find are:

1.      
Vision Impairment.

2.      
Deaf or Hard Of Hearing.

3.      
Mental Health Conditions.

4.      
Intellectual Disability.

5.      
Acquired Brain Injury.

6.      
Autism Spectrum Disorder.

7.      
Physical Disability.

8.      
Skeletal Impairments

Paralysis:
Loss of voluntary movement paralysis affects only one muscle or limb is called
as partial paralysis, it is also known as plasy. Paralysis of all muscle is
called as total paralysis which may occur in cases of botulism. Hemiparesis is
weakness of one entire side on the body. Partial paralysis can be caused due to
a stroke or brain damage.

 

 This include joint movement limitations
(either mechanical or due to pain), small limbs, missing limbs, or abnormal
trunk size. Some major causes of these impairments can be explained as follows.

 

Arthritis

Arthritis is
defined as pain in joints, usually reducing range of motion and causing
weakness. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic syndrome. Osteoarthritis is a
degenerative joint disease. The incidence of all forms of arthritis is now
estimated at 900,000 new cases per year10.

 

Cerebral Palsy
(CP)

Cerebral palsy
is defined as damage to the motor areas of the brain prior to brain maturity
(most cases of CP occur before, during or shortly following birth). CP is a
type of injury, not a disease (although it can be caused by a disease), and
does not get worse over time; it is also not “curable.” Some causes
of cerebral palsy are high temperature, lack of oxygen, and injury to the head.

 

Spinal Cord
Injury

 

Spinal cord
injury can result in paralysis or paresis (weakening). The extent of
paralysis/paresis and the parts of the body affected are determined by how high
or low on the spine the damage occurs and the type of damage to the cord.

Head Injury
(cerebral trauma)

 

The term
“head injury” is used to describe a wide array of injuries, including
concussion, brain stem  injury, closed
head injury, cerebral hemorrhage, depressed skull fracture, foreign object
(e.g., bullet), anoxia, and post-operative infections.

Stroke (cerebral
vascular accident – CVA)

 

 The three main causes of stroke are:
thrombosis (blood clot in a blood vessel blocks blood flow past that point),
hemorrhage (resulting in bleeding into the brain tissue; associated with high
blood pressure or rupture of an aneurysm), and embolism (a large clot breaks
off and blocks an artery). Loss of Limbs or Digits (Amputation or Congenital)

 

This may be due
to trauma (e.g., explosions, mangling in a machine, severance, burns) or
surgery (due to cancer, peripheral arterial disease, diabetes). Usually
prosthetics are worn, although these do not result in full return of function.

 

Parkinson’s
Disease

This is a
progressive disease of older adults characterized by muscle rigidity, slowness
of movements, and a unique type of tremor.

Multiple
Sclerosis (MS)

 

Multiple
sclerosis is defined as a progressive disease of the central nervous system
characterized by the destruction of the insulating material covering nerve
fibers. The problems these individuals experience include poor muscle control,
weakness and fatigue, difficulty walking, talking, seeing, sensing or grasping
objects, and intolerance of heat. Onset is between the ages of 10 and 40.

 

ALS (Lou
Gehrig’s Disease)

ALS (Amyotrophic
Lateral Sclerosis) is a fatal degenerative disease of the central nervous
system characterized by slowly progressive paralysis of the voluntary muscles.
The major symptom is progressive muscle weakness involving the limbs, trunk,
breathing muscles, throat and tongue, leading to partial paralysis and severe
speech difficulties.

 

Muscular
Dystrophy (MD)

Muscular
dystrophy is a group of hereditary diseases causing progressive muscular
weakness, loss of muscular control, contractions and difficulty in walking,
breathing, reaching, and use of hands involving strength.

 

 

I.      Motivation

 

Moving the patients from wheelchair to
stretcher or to the medical bed or vice versa is always a problematic
issue for the caretaker. There is a revolution of wheelchairs available today driven by needs and desire of man.

The “Convertible Smart Bed for Patients”

Facilitates the disabled
patient’s mobility & provides novel medical equipment for use in the Indian
hospitals. The purpose of this design is to reduce
the
effort of the caretaker & provide a
safer transfer
for
the patients in hospitals.

 

 

II.   Scope Of The Project

 

a) This design which will reduce the effort of the caretaker and provide a
safer transfer for the patients in hospitals.

b) To reduce precluding exertion of the patients.

c) To carry out the safe transfer of the patient.

d)To utilize space efficiently.

e)
An excellent choice for a person seeking for two features,
rather than going for two different products, he can
choose our ‘Convertible Smart
Bed
for Patients’ integrated with two different
features.

f) The ‘Convertible Smart Bed for Patients’
facilitates the disabled patient’s mobility & provides novel medical equipment for use in the Indian
hospitals.

 

III. Literature Survey

 

1 India is
seeing a tremendous rise in the number or disabled personalities. Mobility aids
are useful for patients for transportation and it’s a substitute for patients
for walking in environments both indoor and outdoor. Wheelchairs and stretchers
or medical beds are usually employed medical equipment for the transportation
of patients. The project “MULTIPURPOSE MEDICAL BED”  by Jerin Joseph John,is introduced to solve
problems related to the conventional medical care equipment and would be cheap
and affordable and could be efficiently used in hospitals to save space, time
and to provide better care to the required.

 

2
G. Mamtani, “AN INTEGRATED DECISION MAKING MODEL FOR EVALUATION OF CONCEPT
DESIGN” The Conceptual design phase generates various design concepts and these
are then evaluated in order to identify the ‘Best’ concept. Identifying the
Best concept is important because much of the product life cycle cost is
decided in -making. Different criteria are weighted against concepts for this
phase. Various evaluation techniques are performed so as to aid decision
comparison. This paper describes the research being carried out at the
University of Glasgow on design evaluation.

 

3 Kulkarni, “DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF
WHEELCHAIR-TO-BED SYSTEM USING FLUID POWER” Wheelchair is a chair with wheels
used to move a person/patient from one location to another due to their
inability to move. This may be due to the user/patient being physically disabled,
weakness due to their disease or old age. Hence after they arrive back to or
when they are moving away from their beds, there is a transition from
wheelchair to bed or bed to wheelchair. This transition is tedious and is
proved to be harmful to both the patient and the helper by many studies and
surveys. A provision can be provided to convert the wheelchair into a bed using
hydraulic

 

4 Nomula
Srinivas, “IMPROVE THE PERFORMANCE OF SMART WHEELCHAIR FOR MULTIPURPOSE
APPLICATIONS BASED ON ARM7” These days, power wheelchairs are available to
seniors and the disabled people, and they have expanded the active range of
these people. The purpose of our study is to develop a power wheelchair that
gives the aged and disabled the same degree of mobility that healthy people
enjoy, enabling users to rejoin society fully and heartily. To accomplish this,
we adopt a holonomic Omni-directional mechanism that provides three DOF
mobility, the same as healthy people have. In addition, we propose a novel
steering interface for holonomic Omni-directional power wheelchair that
observes user’s body action such as tilting an upper body or twisting a waist
in order to get user’s intention. To design a new wheelchair, we made a large
omni wheel and decided measurements of a seat referring to values of standard
Japanese physical constitutions. We also made a model of human who ride on
wheelchair to analyze a movement of his upper body. The developed wheelchair
has high acceleration and speed enough to play a sport such as tennis.

 

5 According to
Mr. Peter Axelson, Mr. Jean Minkel, and Mr. Denise Chesney, selection of an
appropriate wheelchair will lead a comfortable living to the user. Performance,
safety and dimensions are the three categories which have to be considered
while selecting a manual or powered wheelchair. An excellent approach to the
wheelchair selection is to set priorities based on user’s mobility and seating
needs. It is highly recommended that a novice can consult with their
habilitation specialists in order to select the appropriate wheelchair

.

6 James J.
Kauzlarich, says self excited vibration is one of the most interesting topics
in the field of vibrations and is the science prevailing caster wheel shimmy.
Self excited vibration is characterized by vibration that is produced by the
motion of the system like wheelchair speed. It can be observed that in most of
the cheapest wheelchairs, the design of the casters makes use of a sliding
frictional damper in the spindle support to improve the shimmy characteristics.
Understanding the theory of damping for the casters show how shimmy prevention
works in ultra-light and powered wheelchairs.

 

 

IV. Methodology

 

There are three sections in Wheelchair /Stretcher. These sections are as follows:

a)    Back Rest

b)  Main Rest/ Seat

         c)    Leg Rest

Out of these back
rest
and leg rest are movable, whereas the main rest is stationary.
The back rest
and
the main rest are held together by means of
shafts and bushes. When the button is pressed the
Motor starts rotating in counter clockwise direction
(When viewed from
rear end).
The
electric motor rotates in the
same direction as that of the motor. Stoppers are provided
so
that the back rest does not go beyond
the
stretcher position (0 or
180).  The transformation
continues till the push button is
pressed. As soon as the push button
is released it gets locked at that position.

 

 

 

Fig.4
Basic block diagram

 

Sensors- A sensor is a device that
detects and responds to some type of input from the physical environment. 

 

Accelerometer Sensor- The accelerometer sensor is a dynamic
sensor which is capable of a wide range of sensing. Accelerometers are
available that can measure acceleration in one, two, or three orthogonal axes.

On-off switch-It is a rudimentary
switch having two modes that can be used in most of the applications. It is a
switch that has two modes which can be used to select on or off state.

H bridge
circuit-An H-bridge is an electronic circuit that enables a voltage to be
applied across a load in opposite direction. These circuits are often used
in robotics and other applications to allow DC motors to run
forwards or backwards. In particular, a bipolar stepper
motor is
invariably driven by a motor controller containing two H bridges

Reclining mechanism-This mechanism is used in devices such as lift tables and scissor lifts. Latest low-profile computer keyboards make an extensive
use of it as well, installing each key on a scissor support to ensure their
smooth vertical movement, allowing the use of a cheap and reliable 
contact set, instead of expensive and complex array of mechanical switches.

 

 

 

 

V.        Softwares

 

Softwares-CATIA 
is an acronym of computer
aided three-dimensional interactive application. It  is a multi-platform software suite for computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)
and computer-aided engineering (CAE).

 

SolidWorks -SolidWorks is
a modeling computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) computer program that
runs on Microsoft Windows.

 

 

 

 

 

VI. Conclusion

 

 

 

                           Fig.5 Projected
Modes

 

 

VII.    ACKNOWLEDGMENT

 

This IJIREICE report on “Convertible Smart Bed
for
Patients”   has been possible
 only  because
 of
kind co-operation
lent by our teacher and project guide Mrs.Poorva Waingankar without which this would not have been possible

We would also like to thank our parents, who

have provided us with all resources and the

support needed to gain knowledge and

complete this project.

At last I would like to thank Dr. B.K. Mishra

(Principal), Dr. Kamal Shah(Dean R&D),

Dr.Sandhya Save (Electronics department,

HOD) for their guidance and support.

 

VIII.  References

 

1 IEEE Paper subject “Convertible
bed
and wheelchair”, published by Shaffer W. G., 1988.

 

2
Weiss N., “Wheelchair and bed with movable body supporting portions”, US 3
Patent Number: 5,659, 910, 1997.

3
Axelson P., “A guide to wheelchair selection”, paralyzed veterans of America,
Library of Congress Cataloguing in-publication data Washington 1994.

4
Kauzlarich J.J.,
“Wheelchair caster shimmyII: Damping”, Journal of Rehabilitation Research and
Development Volume. 3, May/June 2000,pp
305-313.

5
Cooper R, Corfman T, Fitzgerald S, Boninger M, Spaeth D, Ammer W, Arva J.,
“Performance Assessment of a Pushrim Activated Power Assisted Wheelchair”, IEEE
Trans Control Sys Tech, Volume 10, ISSN:1063-6536, Jan 2002

6
Cooper R., “Wheelchair selection and configuration”, ISBN 1-888799–18–8, March 1998.

7
Jolly D., “Wheelchair transfer”, The Ohio state university college, Columbus,
Ohio, retrieved on 24th Sept. 2010.

8
Winter A., “Mechanical principle of wheelchair design”, Graduate Student,
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
US, retrieved on 24th Sept. 2010.

9
 Chakrabarti D., “Indian Anthropometric
Dimensions for Ergonomic Design Practice”,  National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad, 1999.

10
Sreerag C S, Gopinath C, Manas Ranjan Mishra,”DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF
CONCEPTUALWHEELCHAIR CUM STRETCHER”, SASTECH Volume 10, Issue 2, Sep 2011.

 11 Sumedh J.
Suryawanshi, Dr. K. Janardhan Reddy,”Conceptual Product Development of
Wheelchair for People Disabled in Legs”, International Journal of Research in
Mechanical Engineering Volume 1,Issue 2, October-December, 2013.

12 Padmanabhan M, Rahoof T E, Vipin Raj V M, Vivek Krishnan
K,” PNEUMATIC STRETCHER-CHAIR DEVICE FOR PARALYSED PATIENTS”, IJRET: International
Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology Volume: 03 Issue: 03,
Mar-2014.

 

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