Abhinav Rao TalluriMrs. Boivie and Mrs. SanchezGT Humanities 3B11 December, 2017One Of The Most Innovative and Contributing Scientist, Astrologist, and Mathematician of The Islamic Empire: Nasir Al-Din Al-TusiNasir Al-Din Al-Tusi was one of the most significant scientists and mathematicians of the Islamic Empire. He was an astronomer, mathematician, theologian, and physician. One of his greatest accomplishments was to create the “Treatise of the Quadrilateral” which proved that trigonometry was a branch of mathematics and not astronomy. He was the first and last director of The Rasad Khaneh Observatory in Maragha, one of the most significant observatories of the time. He wrote more than a hundred and fifty books and translated even more books from other languages. Many of his works have impacted the world to make the world as it is today, for if it were not for him, today there would not have been an as extensive trigonometry, geometry, astrology, spatial geography, philosophy, or theology.Nasir Al-Din Al-Tusi was born into a family of scholars on February 18, 1201 in Tus, Iran and was pushed to pursue Islam and its sciences. Following his father’s death, at a young age Nasir Al-Din Al-Tusi decided to follow his family’s footsteps. “After losing his father as a child, he devoted his entire life in accomplishing his father’s dream of becoming a learned scholar” (“Who Is Nasir Al-Din”). He was taught basic sciences, such as physics and metaphysics, and logic from his uncle, while learning math from other teachers. He moved to Nishapur, a prominent learning center at the time, as a teenager and pursued the more complex studies of math, medicine, and sciences. After that, he travelled to Mosul to be a part of astronomical and mathematical lectures. “While studying at Mosul, he completed a small booklet of philosophical Sufi compositions ‘Awsaf al-Ashraf’ (The Attributes of the Illustrious)” (“Who Is Nasir Al-Din”). Thereafter, he travelled to many places trying to learn as much as he could from lectures over various subjects including Islam, geometry, geography, astronomy, and physics.With the invasion of the Mongols came opportunity for Nasir Al-Din Al-Tusi. Due to his knowledge, the Mongolian leader, Hulagu Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, made Nasir Al-Din Al-Tusi his advisor. “However, he was appointed Hulagu’s scientific advisor due to his knowledge, talent and abilities” (“Who Is Nasir Al-Din”). Nasir Al-Din Al-Tusi married a Mongolian to show his loyalty to the Mongols, which benefited him in turn and gave him a promotion to court astrologer and minister of religious affairs along with still being the advisor of Hulagu Khan. “Al-??s? married a Mongol and was then put in charge of the ministry of religious bequests” (“Nasir-al-Din”). Once he had accomplished this amazing feat, because it was seldom, very hard, and rare to gain the Mongolian leader’s trust, Nasir Al-Din Al-Tusi somehow persuaded Hulagu Khan to build an observatory for Nasir Al-Din Al-Tusi to study the sky. “He was a Benjamin Franklin figure who persuaded the 13th-century Mongol conqueror Hulagu Khan to finance a boldly experimental observatory in the northwest Persian city of Maragha” (“Saudi Aramco World”). “More than an observatory, Hülegü obtained a first-rate library and staffed his institution with notable Islamic and Chinese scholars. Funded by an endowment, research continued at the institution for at least 25 years after al-T?u?s??’s death, and some of its astronomical instruments inspired later designs in Samarkand (now in Uzbekistan).” (“Nasir Al-Din Al-Tusi”). The Rasad Khaneh Observatory in Maragha was completed in 1262 and Nasir Al-Din Al-Tusi served as its director till his death on June 26, 1274 in the Al-Kadhimiya Mosque, Baghdad, Iraq.Many of Nasir Al-Din Al-Tusi’s works benefit us today. He wrote more than one hundred and fifty Arabic and Persian books along with editing and translating almost all European works into Arabic. He gave original contributions to the field of astronomy and mathematics. “His most famous work, Akhl?q-i n??ir? (1232; Nasirean Ethics)” (“Nasir-al-Din”) was about his observations of ethics and values. He made the four-volume ‘Zij-i ilkhani’, or translated to the Ilkhanic Tables, through extensive research in the Rasad Khaneh Observatory in Maragha, which depicted perfectly accurate representations of the planets’ circulatory movements. He also came up with the theory now commonly known as the Al-Tusi Couple, which described the motion from a point on one circle rolling inside another. Using these two theories of his, “al-T?u?s?? succeeded in reforming the Ptolemaic planetary models, producing a system in which all orbits are described by uniform circular motion” (“Nasir Al-Din Al-Tusi”). “The treatise of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi The Collection of Arithmetic (Jami’ al-hisab bi-‘l-Takht wa-‘l-turab) was written in 1265” (“New Results In The Research”), which talks about all of the algebra and geometry used during those times. “His ‘Treatise of the Quadrilateral’ is regarded as his best work on mathematics, where he differentiates between spherical trigonometry and astronomy, thus declaring trigonometry a branch of mathematics, distinct from astronomy” (“Who Is Nasir Al-Din”). Nasir Al-Din Al-Tusi’s observatory educated many generations of star-gazers for twenty five years after his death. The Rasad Khaneh Observatory in Maragha was staffed by the best and brightest astrologers of the time, many of whom became prominent innovative scientific figures themselves.Nasir Al-Din Al-Tusi started off as an intellectual child and went on to study to become a scholar looking up to his dad. He started an observatory and studied many mathematics and sciences. “Yesterday is gone forever and tomorrow is uncertain” said Imam Ali. Well without Nasir Al-Din Al-Tusi’s contributions to the many fields of science and mathematics, yesterday would not be the same, today would have been uncertain, and tomorrow would not even exist.