Research Question
– Is there a relationship between educating
women about stereotype threat and enhancing performance in stereotype-relevant


Hypotheses – Acknowledgement
of stereotype threat enhance performance in stereotype-relevant tasks.

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framework – Studies have found that a reminder of
stigmatized identity on a stereotype-relevant task to women or minorities tend
to weaken their performance. Existing research has discovered some strategies
to deal with stereotype threat. For example, exposing to positive role model,
testing in same-sex environment and also guidance to view intelligence as a
malleable trait in a threatening stereotype conditions. Besides, past research
has suggested that situational explanation for arousal would helped to reduce
stereotype threat and also preventing poor performances. Additionally, another
past research indicated that stereotype threat can be reduced when given
situational attribution to a stigmatized individual. This is because during a
stereotype-relevant task, this could provide stigmatized-individual an external
attribution for their anxiety as they have a better understanding regarding the
effects of stereotype threat. Therefore, helping them to avoid thoughts of
inabilities to perform well in stereotype-relevant tasks.


General Method
– There were a total of 117 finalized participants (75 women and 42 men), who are
introductory statistics student, volunteered for extra credit. They were randomly
assigned to one of the three conditions in a 2 (gender) x 3 (tests). This
experiment is supervised by either a male or female experimenter. The
experimenter would play an audio-recorded description of the study during the
conditions and different instruction were given respectively. The first
condition was problem-solving condition, where the participants were told to
complete an exercise to study cognitive processes. The second condition is
math-test condition, participants were asked to complete a test to study gender
differences in mathematics performance, whereas the last condition,
teaching-intervention condition, which is the same as the math-test condition,
but in this condition researcher will inform the participants about negative
effects about stereotype threat and includes an explanation about women’s
anxiety and true abilities. After that, participants were asked to complete a
questionnaire with two manipulation checks. Using 7-point scales, participants
rated on the perception on male researcher thought gender stereotype could
weaken performance on a test, and their perception on how the researcher predicted
men and women would differ in performances. Lastly, participants were told to
rate whether gender stereotype have influences on anxiety when tests to assess


Findings &
Conclusions – Findings have showed that stereotype
threat increased women’s confidence and encourage them towards success in the
teaching-intervention condition by analyzing the perceptions of participants of
the researcher’s expectation. In the manipulation checks, analysis showed that
participants in the teaching-intervention condition have perceived that the
male researcher thought negative gender stereotypes could weaken performance
compared to the other two conditions. Women ratings were also higher on the
role of gender stereotypes compared to men. Besides, in the
teaching-intervention condition, mainly women participants than men think that
the researcher expected men to outperform women compared to the other two
conditions. Furthermore, for the test performance, women and men were equally
accurate in the problem-solving condition, whereas women were less accurate in
the math-test condition. In the teaching-intervention condition, women
performed equally to men in the same condition, to women in problem-solving
condition, and even outperformed women in the math-test condition. Additionally,
the analysis of attribution to gender stereotype suggested that in both
math-test and teaching intervention condition, participants who are women
rather than men, reported that gender stereotypes led to anxiety, and were
significantly higher in problem-solving condition. This showed that emphasizing
gender stereotypes on tests would boost women’s belief that stereotypes
influence their anxiety. However, informing participants about the negative
effect of stereotype threat would be necessary to improve their performances.


Future Research –
Write & justify future research here
based on what the lead paper you have chosen has found.


Implications – As people would more likely to
improve performing tasks if they were told about the stereotype threat,
therefore this can be practiced in classrooms and even workplace, major
industries or institutions. For students, they will be advised, thus helping
them to improve in academics, curricular activities, and sport activities in
school. For instance, it is not only girls could do well in academics and boys
only do well in sports. Besides, in workplace, it is not only men who is
capable of high positions of qualifications in the company, women might have
outperformed men in that particular field. It is rather fair to open up our
minds, to think that all genders may be capable of doing anything. This would
help to prevent bias among genders and not just labelling them according to
gender stereotypes.