2) The Opera House is
the iconic symbol of Sydney and to some extent, Australia.
1) The Opera House
became and remains a world-class performing arts centre with currently has 5
main auditoria and nearly 1000 rooms, a reception hall, 5 rehearsal studios, 4
restaurants, 6 theatre bars, an extensive foyer, library and administrative
5) There was also
uncertainty about government expectations of the project. The costs continued
to increase and issue arose on how this large-scale project would be funded.
4) There were no project evaluation measures.
Therefore, some sections of the opera house were even built then later
demolished, re-designed and built again.
3) The Sydney Opera House
project had no project manager, and it was assumed that Jorn Utzon would take
the initiative for all design, construction and development decisions.
2) No known methods to
construct proposed roof structure.
1) The design
competition, though it was a good incentive, failed to evaluate how much
experience the entrants had with large-scale design projects.
There were a lot of
difficulties, challenges and risk involved or associated with the Sydney Opera
House Project. Some of them are:
Being a public
attraction and attracting a lot of tourists and locals every year, the main
source of revenue for such a structure comes from admission fees, concerts
sales, tours and other public events. This makes the public discretionary
Today, the Sydney Opera
House remains an icon to the theatrical, structural and architectural worlds.
The government of New South Wales continues to be a primary stakeholder looking
over the operations of the Opera House. The section of the government that
maintains the theater is the Sydney Opera House Trust Fund, who operates the
theater on behalf of the government.
2) Present day
Next in line of
stakeholders, was Australian Broadcasting Commission (ABC), lotteries that were
the primary source of the funds for the Opera House. Last was the Opera House
Committee formed in 1954.
Due to financial
issues, Utzon resigned from the project before its completion, and the
government had to eventually hire Hall, Todd and Littlemore for the completion
of the project. They had some of the original blueprints of the building, time
and money and assumed the role of project manager which makes them the further
stakeholders of the project.
The main stakeholder
throughout the initial construction process (1959-1973) was Jorn Utzon. Since
the project lacked a proper project manager, Utzon, along with Ove Arup, the
chief structural engineer working on the project, took the job of facilitating
and overseeing the construction of the project. Arup, who was for the most part
Utzon’s second in command, is also considered a stakeholder.
The next stakeholders
are the judging panel of the international competition to design the Opera
House. However they lacked the power to do anything further once the design was
The project first
started to take form in the mid 20th century and the New South Wales
government was given a task to create a theater, which was intended to serve
the arts. Therefore, the New South Wales government stands as the very first
stakeholder of the project.
1) During the
The Sydney Opera House,
a public sector endeavor, had many stakeholders. The stakeholders can be
The Sydney Opera House
would be one of the first major projects using computer-aided design (CAD) and
presented major revolutionary architectural concepts and engineering
challenges. Altogether, the Sydney Opera House took fourteen years to complete
and construction costs amounted nearly AUS $102M. Since its initial opening in
1973, the Sydney Opera House has undergone renovations and expansions and
hosted many performances.
Under the leadership of
Utzon: on July 19, 1957, the Sydney Opera House Lottery Fund was established.
The government of New South Wales did not want to pay for the project. In 1959,
Ove Arup and Partners were appointed as
the structural engineers for the project and thus, the construction of Sydney
Opera House began in 1960. It was expected to take four years to complete with
an estimated cost of AUS $7M. However, even working together with Arup, the
final spherical design of the roof was not becoming possible even after three to
four years after the construction began.
In early January of
1957, a 38-year old Danish architect, Jorn Utzon, was announced as the winner
of the competition by Cahill at the Art Gallery of New South Wales. Utzon had designed
the opera house without having seen the site in person and he relied on
photographs, shipping maps and firsthand accounts. The judges chose Utzon’s
design based on its pure originality and creativity, realizing that it would
‘clearly be a controversial design”. However, they were still convinced of its
merits to New South Wales and Sydney. The original drawing features Utzon’s
structurally unrealizable, but aesthetically pleasing roof design.
On February 1, 1956 the
international competition for the national opera house was commenced arranged
by Premier Cahill and the government of New South Wales, provided competitions
with a 25-page booklet with black and white photos of Bennelong Point. Detailed
in the booklet were the requirements for the opera house. The competition
closed in the late 1956 acquiring 233 entries representing 28 countries that
included Australia, England, Germany, French, Morocco, Iran and Kenya.
On November 11, 1954
the honorable John Joseph Cahill, the Premier of New South Wales at the time,
convened a conference to discuss the establishment of an opera house in New
South Wales, Sydney, Australia. At the conference, Cahill expressed his desire
for “proper facilities for the expression of talent and the staging of the
highest form of entertainment that will be accredit to the State not only for
today but hundreds of years. Out of the 21 possible sites of the proposed Opera
House, Bennelong Point, a peninsula of 2.23 hectares was chosen on May17, 1955.