115 million plus individuals stay in South American
currently making about one-third of the United States population. This
includes; Texas, Oklahoma, Kentucky, Delaware, Maryland and West Virginia Compared
to other regions, Southerners are more likely to be uninsured, less likely to
have access to needed health services, and more likely to experience a number of
health conditions such as diabetes and heart disease.
Compared to other regions, People from
the south seem to be more uninsured, don’t have access to needed health
services, and more likely to experience a number of health conditions such as diabetes
and heart disease. 115 million plus individuals stay in
South American currently making about one
third of the United States population. This includes;
Texas, Oklahoma, Kentucky, Delaware, Maryland and West Virginia.
Demographically, Mississippi is already at a disadvantage.
A black man in Mississippi has a shorter
life expectancy than the average American did in 1959. Mississippi
state has a high obesity rate of 35%, one of the highest poverty rates anywhere
in the country. It also has only one abortion clinic.
Mississippi’s Healthcare and in other Southern
states is unlikely to become more equitable anytime soon. Study authors note,
16 of the states in the bottom half of the ranking have opted
not to expand Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act to adults making up to 138
percent of the federal poverty level.
Bilharzia Cercarial dermatitisor swimmer’s itch causes when
cercariae of schistosomes enter human skin and initiate
inflammatory responses. The parasites typically die in the skin but in some
cases may persist and infect other organs. Cercarial dermatitis is caused by a
complex and poorly known assemblage of schistosome species, and can occur in
any location where people come in contact with water bodies harbouring
schistosome-infected snails. In North America, most cases are reported from the
upper Midwest. In south-western USA, this phenomenon has not been
well studied, and it is not known which schistosome species are present, or if
cercarial dermatitis occurs with any regularity. As part of our ongoing studies
of schistosome diversity, using morphological traits and sequence data to
differentiate species, we have thus far identified eight schistosome genetic
lineages from snails from New Mexico and Colorado. We have investigated two
cercarial dermatitis outbreaks, one occurring in Stubblefield Lake in northern
New Mexico, and one in Prospect Lake in the heart of Colorado Springs,
Colorado. The New Mexico outbreak involved either one or two different avian
schistosome species, both transmitted by physid snails. The Colorado outbreak
was due to Trichobilharzia brantae, a species transmitted by geese and the
snail Gyraulus parvus. These outbreaks are in contrast to those in
northern states where schistosomes infecting snails of the family Lymnaeidae
are more often responsible for outbreaks. Our survey suggests that
dermatitis-causing schistosomes are not rare in the southwest, and that there
are plenty of opportunities for dermatitis outbreaks to occur in this region.
Infection occurs when your skin comes in contact with contaminated
freshwater in which certain types of snails that carry schistosomes are living.
Freshwater becomescontaminated by Schistosoma eggs when infected
people urinate or defecate in the water. The eggs hatch, and if certain
types of freshwater snails are present in the water, the parasites develop and
multiply inside the snails. The parasite leaves the snail and enters the water
where it can survive for about 48 hours. Schistosoma parasites
can penetrate the skin of persons who are wading, swimming,
bathing, or washing in contaminated water. Within several weeks, parasite
mature into adult worms, residing in the blood vessels in the body where the eggs
are produced by the female. Some of the eggs travel to the bladder or intestine
and are passed into the urine or stool.
REFERENCES Farley, J. (2013). Bilharzia: A History of Imperial Tropical
Ken, W. (2010). Health Care Management and the Law. Retrieved from
Baciu, A., Yamrot, N., Amy G., James, N.,
Weinstein. (2017) Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity