What is AI?
Artificial Intelligence is a way of
making a computer, a computer-controlled robot, or a software think
intelligently, in the similar manner the intelligent humans think.
John McCarthy is called the Father of
Artificial Intelligence and as per him Artificial Intelligence is
“The science and engineering of making
intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs”.
History of AI
The History of AI began in
4th century B.C. whenAristotleinventedsyllogistic logic, the first formal deductive reasoning system.
Later in 13th centuryTalking
Headswere said to have been
created byRoger BaconandAlbertin the same periodRamon Lullinvented machines for discoveringnon-mathematicaltruths throughcombinatoricsand in 1206 A.D. an Arab inventorAl-Jazaridesigned what is believed to be the first
programmable humanoid robot, a boat carrying four mechanical musicians powered
by water flow.
15th and 16th Century
In 1456 Gutenberg Bible was
printed by Johannes Gutenberg using moveable type
Clocks, the first modern
measuring machines, were produced using lathes
Clockmakers extended their
craft to creating mechanical animals and other novelties. For example, see
DaVinci’s walking lion (1515)
17th and 18th Century
Pascal created the first
mechanical digital calculating machine
In between 1662-1666
Arithmetical Machines devised by Sir Samuel Morland were introduced
In 18th Century
large quantity of Mechanical toys like mechanical duck of Vaucanson and von
Kempelen’s phony mechanical chess player were introduced
The first programmable machine
with instruction on punched cards was introduced by Joseph – Marie Jacquard
The story of Frankenstein’s
monster was published by Mary Shelley and were made available by project
In 20th Century AI took modern shape and automated
further to a new form.
In 1950’s Early AI programs
like Samuel’s checkers program, Newell & Simon’s Logic Theorist,
Gelernter’s Geometry Engine were introduced
In 1956 AI was adopted at the
workshop held at Dartmouth college which was attended by Allen Newell, Herbert
Simon, John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky and Arthur Samuel became the founders and
leaders of AI research.
In 1958 John McCarthy (MIT)
invented the Lisp language.
In 1962 First industrial robot
company, Unimation was founded.
In 1967 first Dendral Program
by Edward Feigenbaum, Joshua Lederberg, Bruce Buchanan, Georgia Sutherland at
Stanford was demonstrated to interpret mass spectra on organic chemical
compounds. First successful knowledge-based program for scientific reasoning.
In 1980’s LISP machines were
developed and marketed
In 1990’s there were Major
advances in all areas of AI, with significant demonstrations in machine
learning, intelligent tutoring, case-based reasoning, multi-agent planning,
scheduling, uncertain reasoning, data mining, natural language understanding and
translation, vision, virtual reality, games, and other topics.
In 2000’s Interactive robot
pets (a.k.a. “smart toys”) become commercially available, realizing
the vision of the 18th cen. novelty toy makers.
Goals of AI
Intelligent execution of user requests
in the operating system
To provide reliability and
better support to customers
To Create systems that
understand, think, learn, and behave like humans for the purpose of learning,
What Contributes to AI?
Artificial intelligence is a science and
technology based on disciplines such as Computer Science, Biology, Psychology,
Linguistics, Mathematics, and Engineering. A major thrust of AI is in the
development of computer functions associated with human intelligence, such as
reasoning, learning, and problem solving.
Out of the following areas, one or
multiple areas can contribute to build an intelligent system.
What is AI Technique?
AI Technique is a manner to organize and
use the knowledge efficiently in such a way that:
It should be perceivable by the
people who provide it.
It should be easily modifiable
to correct errors.
It should be useful in many
situations though it is incomplete or inaccurate.
According to the area of research,different
types of techniques are used. Some of the examples are:
Intelligent Data Analysis in Medicine
Multilayer perceptrons as
nonlinear classifiers and estimators
Gaussian mixture models
Hidden Markov models
Netalg: Neural Network tool box
Connectionist models (neural
Pulsed neural networks
Neuronal modelling based on
Temporal data abstraction
Intelligent information visualization,
Integration of information
technology with telecommunication
Applications of AI
Artificial Intelligence has many
application’s in today’s society and plays an important role in our day to day
life in the fields such as Marketing, Finance, Medical, gaming and many other.
AI has been dominant in various fields as below:
AI plays an important role in games such
as chess, poker as it can think of large number of possible moves then human
Natural Language Processing
Natural language processing makes it
possible to interact with computer that understands natural language spoken by
There are some applications which integrate
machines and software to provide explanation and advice to the users.
These systems understand, interpret, and
comprehend visual input on the computer.
These systems are capable of hearing and
comprehending the language in term of sentences and their meanings while human
talks to it.
This system reads the text written on
paper or on a screen. It can recognize the shapes of the letters and convert it
into editable text.
Robots have the sensors to detect physical
data from temperature, movement, sound, light, heat etc. and perform the task
given by human.
Programming with and without
A typical program has three major segments
input, processing and output. The comparison between regular programming and AI
programming is described in the below table:
Table 1: Programming with and
In regular programming, input is
a sequence of alphanumeric symbols presented and stored as per some given set
of previously stipulated rules and that uses a limited set of communication
media such as keyboard, mouse, disc, etc.
In Artificial Intelligence
programming, the input may be a sight, sound, touch, smell or taste. Sight
means one dimensional symbol such as typed text, two dimensional objects or
three dimensional scenes. Sound input includes spoken language, music, noise
made by objects. Touch includes temperature, smoothness, resistance to
pressure. Smell input includes odors emanating from animate and inanimate
objects. And taste input includes sweet, sour, salty, bitter foodstuffs and
In regular programming,
processing means manipulation of the stored symbols by a set of previously
In AI programming, processing
includes knowledge representation and pattern matching, search, logic,
problem solving and learning.
In regular programming, output
is a sequence of alphanumeric symbols, may be in a given set of colors, that
represents the result of the processing and that is placed on such a medium
as a CRT screen, paper, or magnetic disk.
In AI programming, output can be
in the form of printed language and synthesized speech, manipulation of
physical objects or locomotion i.e., movement in space.
An intelligent system is a machine with
an embedded, Internet-connected computer that has the capacity to gather and
analyze data and communicate with other systems.
What is Intelligence?
The ability of a system intelligence is to
calculate, reason, perceive relationships and analogies, learn fromexperience,
store and retrieve information from memory, solve problems, comprehendcomplex
ideas, use natural language fluently, classify, generalize, and adapt new
Types of Intelligence
The types of Intelligence are:
Logical – Mathematical
Intra Personal Intelligence
What is intelligence composed
Difference between human and
Table 2: Difference between human
and machine intelligence
Humans perceive by patterns
Machines perceive by set of
rules and data
Humans store and recall
information by patterns
Machines search by algorithms
Humans can figure out the
complete object even if something is missing
Machines cannot figure out
Intelligence in our day to day
Machine intelligence is used in our day
to day life in various areas such as
Automatic address recognition and sorting
Automatic check readers, signature
verification systems and automated loan application classification
Automatic voice recognition for directory inquiries
Credit Card Companies
Automated fraud detection
Automated diagnosis for help-desk
Research areas of AI
The research area of AI is vast and huge.
Some of the common research areas in the domain of AI are:
Natural Language Processing
Real life applications of
There are large number of applications
where AI is helping people in their day to day lives:
An expert system is used for solving
complex problems by reasoning about knowledge, represented primarily by if-then
rules rather than by conventional procedural code.
Example: Flight tracking systems,
Neural networks are system of
interconnected which exchange messages between each other and are used for
approximate functions or it estimates a large number of inputs which are
Example: Pattern recognition systems such
as face recognition, character recognition, handwriting recognition.
Robotics is mainly composed of electrical
engineering, mechanical engineering and computer science engineering for
construction, designing and application of robots.
Example: Industrial robots for moving,
spraying, painting, precision checking, drilling, cleaning, coating, carving
Fuzzy Logic was introduced in 1965. It is
a form of many valued logics in which truth table values of variables may be a real
number between 0 and 1.
Example: Consumer Electronics,
Natural Language Processing
It is a method of communicating with an
intelligent system by using natural language such as English. The input and
output of NLP system is written in text or speech.
Example: Google now feature.
Task Classification of AI
The task classification of AI is into 3
Expert tasks are as follows:
Mundane tasks are as follows:
Common Sense Reasoning
Formal tasks are as follows:
Proving Properties of programs
Since AI is developing at a high pace and
there are different opinions among researchers and developers that it might get
difficult for humans to control. Some of the issues and threats are:
Threat to privacy
Threat to Human Dignity
Threat to Safety
Terminology and Abbreviations
Table 3: Terminology and
Natural Language Processing
An artificial intelligence is a
machine that can think the way people think.
Machine learning is a subset of
the larger artificial intelligence category.
It means the same as artificial
A computer system inspired by
A process or set of rules to be
followed in calculations or other problem-solving operations, especially by
It is all about looking for
patterns in a set of data. It identifies correlations and trends that might
otherwise go unnoticed.
Natural Language Processing
It is an area of artificial
intelligence related to understanding and generating speech the way humans
usually use it.
The Turing Test is named for
its inventor, Alan Turing, an early computer scientist who theorized
extensively about artificial intelligence.