~~1. Heat fixation is done by putting the air-dried

~~1.    Suppose you Gram stained a sample from a pure culture of bacteria and observed a     field of red and purple cocci. Adjacent cells were not always the same color. What would you conclude? (2 points)If I was to gram stained a sample from a pure culture of bacteria and observed a field of red and purple cocci, as since the adjacent cells were not always the same color, one could conclude that maybe the adjacent cells were somehow stained incorrectly throughout the process. Based on the information that I know thus far, the gram staining should not be producing both red and purple, but rather red or purple; there should only be one of those colors being produced.~~2.    Give a brief description of how biological dyes work. (2 points)Biological dyes work by connecting to the membranes of cells. They cay can be engineered to be attracted to certain things of the cells membranes, making them able to specifically stain certain bacterial depending on its cellular makeup.~~3.    Why is heat fixation important in the staining procedure? (2 points) Heat fixation is important in the staining process because it prevents a bacterial smear from washing away while in the process of staining. Heat fixation is done by putting the air-dried smear over a Bunsen burner rapidly.~~4.    List any advantages of a negative stain over a simple stain. (2 points)A negative stain is when a single stain to color around the cells background. Some advantages of a negative stain over a simple stain is that stains are not able to penetrate the cells. This means that those cells can be seen easily against a colored background. The heat and chemicals can’t distort cells shape and size, meaning that the heat fixation will not be required for negative stains.~~5.    Name two common shapes and five common arrangements of bacteria. Why are spatial arrangement and shape important characteristics to recognize? (2 points)The two common shapes of bacteria are rods and cocci. The five common arrangements of bacteria are diplobacilli, V-shapes, diplococci, tetrads and cords. The two common shapes of bacteria are important because it helps us identify what shape the bacteria is. The five-common arrangement of bacteria are important because they help us identify which group the bacteria will go in. For instance, let’s say that the bacteria have a rod shape and its arrangement is diplobacilli.

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