1. Who is Socrates? Give some information about him…
Socrates, born in Atens nine years after Confucius died living during the golden era of Greek culture in a city that had become the intellectual and cultural center of the Mediterranean world. Many consider him the father of Western philosophy. Socrates showed his interested in ethical and political problems. Socrates would begin by asking for a definition of concept like justice. Then when a definition was made he would analyze its meaning and critically examined it.
2. What is the Apology (by Plato) all about?
The Apology is about the situation the Socrates was going through during his trial that he got charged for by not recognizing the gods and corrupting the youth if Athens. Socrates believes he is the wisest men with a lot of wisdom as well, and his witness is the god of Delphi. The investigation of the poets, and artisans actually led him to more enemies. It earned him admiration with the youth of Athens but more hate to the people he embarrassed. Socrate then is put on trial, and he explains the reason why his three accusers Meletus, Anytus, and Lycon are set upon him. In the reading of the Apology it says, “Meletus is upon Socrate because of the poets, Anythus for his craftsmen, and Lycon on behalf of the orators.”(70) Socrates feels they hate him because he is saying the truth then he explains the second class who are leaded by Meletus. Meletus says, “Socrates is a doer of evil and corrupter of the youth, and he does not believe in the gods of the state. He has other new divinities of his own.” Socrates says that is his charge upon him they think he is a doer of evil who has corrupted the youth. Then the jury begins between Socrates that intends to interrogate Meletus who is the primary responsible why Socrates is at jury. The jury returns a guilty verdict and Meletus proposes death as a punishment. Socrates is being found guilty and is asked to propose a penalty. He has rejected prison and offers paying a fine. The jury then votes again to decide between Socrates proposal of a fine and Meletus proposal of the death penalty. The final choice is death. Since Socrates now know he will die he speaks to those who has condemned him to death, and also his friends about how he feels and what is happening. Socrates then starts to feel maybe death is the best decision after all. He is not angry with his accuser or condemner they did not do him harm nor meant to do him good, so Socrates will blame them for this and they actually harmed themselves much more than they harm him.
3. Comment on this: Socrates moral concern is for improvement of Soul? What is it in the Apology?
4. What is the main point Socrates made by telling the story about the Oracle at Dephi?
The main point was the Oracle told Socrates that he is the wisest man in Athens, and that is what made him so wise because he claimed to know nothing. According to the reading Socrates said, ” He asked the oracle to tell him whether there was anyone wise than I was. The Pythian prophetess answered, there was no man wiser. Chaerephon is dead, himself but his brother, who is in court will confirm the truth of this story.” (69)
5. What does it mean by: I AM SORT OF GADFLY GIVEN TO THE STATE BY THE GODS?
In the reading of The Apology the readers said, “The State is like a great and noble steed who is slow in his motions owning to his very size and needs to be stirred into life. I am that gadfly which the gods have given the state and all day long and in all places, am always fastening upon you, persuading, and reproaching you.” Being said he states that they would not easily find another like him, if they killed him.