1.1 poverty CHAPTER II 2.1 Defenition of Poverty Poverty

1.1  Background

Sustainable Development Goal or SDG is a global development agenda agreed by 193 UN member states on 21 October 2015. SDG is a refinement of the MDG or Millennium Development Goals that are considered successful enough in addressing the problems that exist around the world. The SDG must complete the MDG work, ensuring that nothing is left behind. SDG contains 17 goals with 169 achievements related to the problems that still exist around the world.

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In this paper, I will talk about SDG goals 1 “World without Poverty”.  Poverty is a major problem experienced by all countries in the world. Poverty can lead to other problems, therefore I hope by overcoming poverty we can overcome other problems that exist in the world.

 

1.2  Goals

The goals of this paper is:

1.      To understand what is poverty

2.      To know the cause of poverty

3.      To know the effect of poverty

4.      To know what government should do to overcome poverty

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER II

 

2.1 Defenition of Poverty

            Poverty in etymolically is lack of a certain amount of material possessions or money. Poverty is a state or condition in which a person lacks the financial resources and essentials to enjoy a minimum standart of life that’s considered acceptable in society. World Bank, defines poverty in economic terms — earning less than $1.90 a day.

 

2.2 Cause of Poverty

We know that poverty is an issue that is certainly faced by every country around the world. Poverty is a problem that has long existed, but until now has not found the best solution. The causes of poverty are unemployment, low education levels, lack of jobs, and natural disaster.

The first cause is unemployment (Zulfikar, 2016). Unemployment is a person who does not have a full or still looking for a job. If people do not have a job they cannot get income to fulfill their basic needs. So if the number of unemployed increases, the number of poor people will increase too.

The second cause is low level of education (Zulfikar, 2016). Education is important for human life. If you do not have skills, knowledge, and insight, you will not be able to compete to get a job. Because, if someone wants to get a job with high income then such job must require him/her to have a higher education as well. So, with low education level, it would be hard to find a job and it will lead to poverty.

The third cause is the lack of jobs (Zulfikar, 2016). In this modern era, the population growth increases rapidly. As a result, the number of jobs in Indonesia is not proportional to its population. In other words, the number of jobs is fewer compared with the population and this leads to a lot of people who do not have an income so that it causes poverty. Therefore, to decrease the level of poverty, the government should create new jobs.    

The fourth cause is natural disasters (Zulfikar, 2016). A wide variety of natural disasters such as volcanic eruptions, floods, landslides, earthquakes, and tsunamis cause harm to the victims of natural disasters, one of the impacts is the loss of property and can cause poverty. But actually some of the natural disasters can be anticipated and prevented, for example, in order to avoid flood, we can keep the environment clean with throw the rubbish in right place, and doing reforestation

 

2.3 Effect of Poverty

            Poverty is the major problem that can impact on many things like:

1. Health

The cost of the hospital is very expensive, so the poor cannot afford it. As a result the infant mortality rate is very much. In 2015 an estimated 5.9 million children died under 5 year age, 45% of them during the first 28 days of life. The leading causes of death of children under five include:

Pneumonia
Preterm birth

Diarrhea
Malaria
Malnutrition

 

2. Education

The high cost of education causes many poor children to drop out of school, consequently they do not have the ability and knowledge to get a job. So the number of unemployed increases.

3. Criminality

The poor cannot afford to fulfill their needs, therefore they commit crimes to earn money. Such as stealing, cheating, robbing and blackmailingcheating. Usually done by unemployment.

 

2.4 Overcoming Poverty In Accordance With the Fifth Principles of Pancasila

nThe fifth principle of Pancasila is “Keadilan Sosial bagi Seluruh Rakyat Indonesia” or Social Justice for all Indonesian. That’s mean every Indonesian should get the prosperous life. No more poverty or hunger. All the people of Indonesia must get access to education and health.

There many things that government should do:

1.    Make a policy that pro-poor people

Difference between rich and poor is growing day by day. The government should make some policies, do some amendments to stop that. For example is a ban on rice imports.The policy is not the right policy to help farmers. It is noted that more than 1.5 million people fall into the poor category as a result of the policy.

2.    Build institutions to help micro-enterprises.

By building these institutions the government can help poor communities to grow their businesses. The government can help by providing venture capital for the poor.

3.    Infrastructure development in every region

As we can see infrastructure development is only done in cities. This is very different from the fifth teaching on “Social Justice for all Indonesian “. There are still many areas that have not received adequate education or health facilities, especially outside Java.For example, there are 12000 villages in Kalimantan that have not received electricity, ironic because Kalimantan is a coal-producing island, which is an electricity generator.

Therefore, the government must find ways to make development more equitable throughout the region. Such as with improving access to transportation to remote areas or by seeking alternative renewable energy. For example, if a region has a river with a strong current, we can use the current by making hydropower